This book is the first introduction to the new field called cognitive history. The last decades have seen a noticeable increase in cognitive science studies that have changed the understanding of human thinking. Its relevance for historical research cannot be overlooked any more. Cognitive history could be explained as the study of how humans in history used their cognitive abilities in order to understand the world around them and to orient themselves in it, but also how the world outside their bodies affected their way of thinking. In focus for this book is the relationship between history and cognition, the human mind’s interaction with the environment in time and space. It especially discusses certain cognitive abilities in interaction with the environment, which can be studied in historical sources, namely: evolution, language, rationality, spatiality, and materiality. Cognitive history can give us a deeper understanding of how – and not only what – people thought, and about the interaction between the human mind and the surrounding world.