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Climatology: An Atmospheric Science / Edition 3

Climatology: An Atmospheric Science / Edition 3

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Taking the study of atmospheric science beyond the daily weather map, Climatology explores the broader impacts of weather and climate. The authors cover multiple facets of climate, many of which play a significant role in everyday life—and examine many topics, such as past climates, that are seldom adequately covered in other introductions to the subject. The science behind widely publicized events is explained within the systematic coverage of climate and climatology. The relationships between climate and peopleare discussed in detail, and readers are shown how common things ranging from wind-chill to architecture are understood in the wider context of climate. In the Third Edition, data and information have been updated throughout and significant coverage is devoted to climate change.
Climatology in the World Today; Energy and the Climate System; Atmospheric Temperatures; Climate and the Hydrologic Cycle; Wind and Circulation Patterns; Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions; Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology; Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology; Climatology of Atmospheric Storms; Natural Causes of Climate Change; Reconstruction of Past Climates; Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming; Climate Change and the Physical Environment; Climate Change and the Living World; Changes in Atmospheric Chemistry; Regional Climates: Scales of Study; Tropical Climates; Mid-Latitude Climates; Polar and Highland Climates; The Human Response to Climate; Climate, Agriculture, and Industry.
A useful reference for anyone who wants to learn more about Earth’s climate and weather.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780321602053
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 09/03/2009
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 408
Product dimensions: 8.60(w) x 10.90(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

John Hidore is retired from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. John’s work has taken him to regions across the globe—including the Middle East, where he conducted research for a year in the Sudan, and later witnessed the breakout of civil war in Beirut, Lebanon in 1975. He has also worked and traveled in Saudi Arabia and Israel.

Richard Snow and Mary Snow
are both Associate Professors of Meteorology at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, where their program focuses on the theory and study of climatology, as well as its applications to industrial and business operations. They are new to this edition of Climatology.

John E. Oliver,
deceased, received a bachelor’s degree from London University and his master’s and doctoral degrees from Columbia University in New York. He taught at Columbia University and in 1973 joined the faculty at Indiana State University in Terre Haute, Indiana. During his tenure at Indiana State, John served terms as Chair of the Geography-Geology Department and as the Associate Dean, College of Arts and Science. He was Professor Emeritus at the time of his death in May 2008.
John Oliver distinguished himself as the author of numerous books and articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals. He wrote extensively in the areas of climatology and physical geography. Among his major works is the Encyclopedia of World Climatology (2005), which he edited. John was co-founder of the journal Physical Geography and served as climatology editor of the journal from 1979-2000. In honor of his teaching, research, and university administration, he received the Distinguished Professor award from the College of Arts and Science at Indiana State University. The Climate Specialty Group in the Association of American Geographers presented him the first Lifetime Achievement Award (1998) for his many contributions to the study of climatology and to that professional organization.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Climatology in the World Today
The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Sciences
Climatology: A Brief History

The Content of Climatology
Atmospheric Variables and Data Availability

Data Representation

The Standard Atmosphere

Atmospheric chemistry

Constant gases

The Gas Laws

Variable Gases
Vertical Structure of Earth's Atmosphere



Above the Stratosphere
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 2 Energy and the Climate System
The Solar Source



Energy Transfer
The Nature of Radiation
The Atmosphere and Solar Radiation




The Planetary Energy Budget

The Greenhouse Effect
Earth's Surface and Solar Radiation
The Steady-State System
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 3 Atmospheric Temperatures
The Seasons
Daily Temperature Changes

Daytime Heating

Nighttime Cooling

Daily Temperature Range
Seasonal Lag and Extreme Temperatures
Factors Influencing the Vertical Distribution of Temperature
Factors Influencing the Horizontal Distribution of Temperature


Surface Properties

Aspect and Topography

Dynamic Factors
Temperatures over the Earth’s Surface
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 4 Climate and the Hydrologic Cycle
Changes of State
The Hydrologic Cycle
Relative Humidity
Evaporation and Transpiration
Condensation Near the Ground: Dew, Mist and Fog
Foggy Places
Condensation Above the Surface: Clouds
Cloud Forms and Classification
Vertical Motion in the Atmosphere

Adiabatic Heating and Cooling

Lapse Rates
Regional Variation in Precipitation
Variation in Precipitation Through Time
The Water Balance

A method for Calculating the Water Balance
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 5 Wind and Circulation Patterns
Atmospheric Pressure
Factors Influencing Air Motion

Newton’s Laws of Motion

Pressure Gradient

Coriolis Effect


Rotational Forces
The Resulting Patterns
The General Circulation

Meridional Circulation

Zonal Circulation
Tropical Circulation

Trade Winds

The Intertropical Convergence Zone
Mid-latitude Circulation
Polar Circulation
Seasonal Changes in the Global Pattern


Asian Monsoon
Periodic Local Winds

Land and Sea Breezes

Mountain and Valley Breezes

Föhn Winds
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 6 Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions
Ocean Currents
The Thermohaline Circulation
The Walker Circulation

El Niño

El Niño Episode of 1982-1983

El Niño Event of 1997-1998

El Niño and Northern Hemisphere Weather

Counterpoint-La Niña
The Impacts of El Niño

Agricultural Losses

Disease Outbreaks

Wildlife Losses
Forecasting El Niño
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation
Interannual Variation in the Monsoons
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 7 Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology
Air Masses
Fronts and Middle Latitude Cyclones


Cyclones and Upper Air Circulation
Synoptic Climatic Studies

The Hemispheric Scale
Satellite Climatology

Orbits and Sensors

Limitations and Opportunities of Satellite Studies
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 8 Climatology of Atmospheric Storms
Tropical Cyclones

Formation of Tropical Cyclones

The Time and Place of Occurrence

Hurricane Surge and Coastal Flooding

North American Hurricanes

Hurricane Hazard in the United States

Associated Hazards

Formation of Tornadoes

Distribution of Tornadoes

Hazards of Tornadoes

Tornado Outbreaks of 1925 and 1974

Tornado Forecasting

Radar-Tool for Analysis and Forecasting

Doppler Radar
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions


Chapter 9 Natural Causes of Climate Change
Short-Term Changes

Variation in Solar Irradiance

Sunspot Activity

Variation in Atmospheric Dust

Human-Induced Changes in Earth’s Surface
Long-Term Climatic Changes

Earth–Sun Relationships

Distribution of Continents

Variation in the Oceans

Extraterrestrial Impacts
Other Theories
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 10 Reconstruction of Past Climates
Evidence from Ice

Glaciers and Glaciation

Ice Sheets and Cores

Periglacial Evidence
Ancient Sediments
Sea Level Changes
Past Life

The Faunal Evidence

The Floral Evidence
Climatic Change over Geologic Time
Climate Since the Ice Retreat
Evidence from the Historical Period

The Last 1000 Years
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 11 Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming
Carbon in the Environment
Changing Levels of Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide and the Theory of Global Warming
Future Changes in Carbon Dioxide
Other Greenhouse Gases


Permafrost and methane

Nitrogen oxides


Thermal Pollution
Changes in the Temperature Record
Future Changes in Global Temperatures
Politics of Climate Change
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 12 Climate Change and the Physical Environment
Antarctic Warming
Arctic Warming
Sea Ice
Arctic Ice Shelves

Melting Permafrost
Melting of Earth's Mountain Glaciers



Europe and the Americas
Ocean Properties

Rising Temperatures

Rising Sea Level

Future Sea Level
Changing Weather Systems
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 13 Climate Change and the Living World
Terrestrial Systems

Length of Growing Season

North American Forests

Climate Change and Agriculture
Aquatic Systems

Coral Reefs

Fresh Water Systems
Impact of Rising Sea Level
Climate Change and Human Health
Spread of Tropical Diseases


West Nile Encephalitis Virus

Dengue Fever

Chikungunya (Chicken Guinea)


Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 14 Changes in Atmospheric Chemistry
Atmospheric Pollutants


Carbon Monoxide

Sulfur Compounds

Nitrogen Oxides

Surface Ozone

Atmospheric Brown Clouds
Acid precipitation

Global Distribution of Acid Rain

Impact of Acid Precipitation on Terrestrial Systems

Acid Rain and Human Health

Impact of Acid Rain on Structures
Stratospheric Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation
Stratospheric Ozone


Antarctic Ozone Hole

Global Decline in Ozone

International Response to Ozone Depletion

Ultraviolet Radiation and Living Organisms

Ultraviolet-B and Human Health

Future Depletion of Ozone
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions


Chapter 15 Regional Climates: Scales of Study

General Characteristics of Microclimates

Role of Surface Cover

Role of Topography
Local and Mesoscale Climates

Forest Climates

Mesoscale Climates
Macroscale Climates
Classification of World Climates

Approach to Classification
The Köppen System
Climate and the Distribution of Vegetation




Colder Realms: Taiga and Tundra

Disturbed Formations
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 16 Tropical Climates
Radiation and Temperature
The tropical rainforest Climate (Af)

The Rainforest Biome

Species Diversity

Tropical Deforestation

Deforestation in the Amazon River Valley

The Galapagos: An Equatorial Dry Region

Global Warming in the Tropics
The Tropical Wet-and-Dry Climate(Aw)
The Tropical Deserts (BWh)
Coastal Deserts
Desert Storms
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 17 Mid-Latitude Climates
General Characteristics

Middle latitude Circulation


Climatic Types

Midlatitude Wet Climates

Marine West-Coast Climates

Midlatitude Winter-Dry Climates

Midlatitude Summer-Dry Climates

Midlatitude Deserts
Warming in North America
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 18 Polar and Highland Climates
The Arctic Basin

Polar Lows and Arctic Hurricanes
The Polar Wet and Dry Climate
The Antarctic Continent

The Energy Balance

The Windy Continent

The Polar Wet Climate
Highland Climates
Chinook Winds
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions


Chapter 19 The Human Response to Climate
The Physiological Response
Biometeorological Indices
Solar Radiation and People
Climate and Health


Morbidity and Mortality
Climate and Architecture

Climate and Primitive Constructions

Climate and Modern Structures

Heating and Cooling Degree Days

The Building Fabric

Regional House Design
Urban Climates

The Modified Processes

The Observed Results
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 20 Climate, Agriculture, and Industry

Climate and Crop Distribution

Extending the Climatic Limits

Climate and Crop Yields

Industrial Location

Energy Production

Air Transport


Land Transportation
Tourism and Commerce


Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions


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