ISBN-10:
0321602056
ISBN-13:
9780321602053
Pub. Date:
09/03/2009
Publisher:
Pearson
Climatology: An Atmospheric Science / Edition 3

Climatology: An Atmospheric Science / Edition 3

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Overview

Taking the study of atmospheric science beyond the daily weather map, Climatology explores the broader impacts of weather and climate. The authors cover multiple facets of climate, many of which play a significant role in everyday life—and examine many topics, such as past climates, that are seldom adequately covered in other introductions to the subject. The science behind widely publicized events is explained within the systematic coverage of climate and climatology. The relationships between climate and peopleare discussed in detail, and readers are shown how common things ranging from wind-chill to architecture are understood in the wider context of climate. In the Third Edition, data and information have been updated throughout and significant coverage is devoted to climate change.
Climatology in the World Today; Energy and the Climate System; Atmospheric Temperatures; Climate and the Hydrologic Cycle; Wind and Circulation Patterns; Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions; Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology; Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology; Climatology of Atmospheric Storms; Natural Causes of Climate Change; Reconstruction of Past Climates; Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming; Climate Change and the Physical Environment; Climate Change and the Living World; Changes in Atmospheric Chemistry; Regional Climates: Scales of Study; Tropical Climates; Mid-Latitude Climates; Polar and Highland Climates; The Human Response to Climate; Climate, Agriculture, and Industry.
A useful reference for anyone who wants to learn more about Earth’s climate and weather.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780321602053
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 09/03/2009
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 408
Product dimensions: 8.60(w) x 10.90(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

John Hidore is retired from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. John’s work has taken him to regions across the globe—including the Middle East, where he conducted research for a year in the Sudan, and later witnessed the breakout of civil war in Beirut, Lebanon in 1975. He has also worked and traveled in Saudi Arabia and Israel.

Richard Snow and Mary Snow
are both Associate Professors of Meteorology at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, where their program focuses on the theory and study of climatology, as well as its applications to industrial and business operations. They are new to this edition of Climatology.

John E. Oliver,
deceased, received a bachelor’s degree from London University and his master’s and doctoral degrees from Columbia University in New York. He taught at Columbia University and in 1973 joined the faculty at Indiana State University in Terre Haute, Indiana. During his tenure at Indiana State, John served terms as Chair of the Geography-Geology Department and as the Associate Dean, College of Arts and Science. He was Professor Emeritus at the time of his death in May 2008.
John Oliver distinguished himself as the author of numerous books and articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals. He wrote extensively in the areas of climatology and physical geography. Among his major works is the Encyclopedia of World Climatology (2005), which he edited. John was co-founder of the journal Physical Geography and served as climatology editor of the journal from 1979-2000. In honor of his teaching, research, and university administration, he received the Distinguished Professor award from the College of Arts and Science at Indiana State University. The Climate Specialty Group in the Association of American Geographers presented him the first Lifetime Achievement Award (1998) for his many contributions to the study of climatology and to that professional organization.

Table of Contents

Part 1. PHYSICAL AND DYNAMIC CLIMATOLOGY

Chapter 1 Climatology in the World Today
The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Sciences
Climatology: A Brief History




The Content of Climatology
Atmospheric Variables and Data Availability


Data Representation




Units
The Standard Atmosphere




Atmospheric chemistry




Constant gases




The Gas Laws




Variable Gases
Vertical Structure of Earth's Atmosphere




Troposphere




Stratosphere




Above the Stratosphere
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 2 Energy and the Climate System
The Solar Source




Photosphere




Chromosphere




Sunspots
Energy Transfer
The Nature of Radiation
The Atmosphere and Solar Radiation




Reflection




Scattering




Absorption




Transmission
The Planetary Energy Budget




The Greenhouse Effect
Earth's Surface and Solar Radiation
The Steady-State System
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 3 Atmospheric Temperatures
The Seasons
Daily Temperature Changes




Daytime Heating




Nighttime Cooling




Daily Temperature Range
Seasonal Lag and Extreme Temperatures
Factors Influencing the Vertical Distribution of Temperature
Factors Influencing the Horizontal Distribution of Temperature




Latitude




Surface Properties




Aspect and Topography




Dynamic Factors
Temperatures over the Earth’s Surface
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 4 Climate and the Hydrologic Cycle
Changes of State
The Hydrologic Cycle
Relative Humidity
Evaporation and Transpiration
Condensation Near the Ground: Dew, Mist and Fog
Foggy Places
Condensation Above the Surface: Clouds
Cloud Forms and Classification
Vertical Motion in the Atmosphere




Adiabatic Heating and Cooling




Lapse Rates
Regional Variation in Precipitation
Variation in Precipitation Through Time
The Water Balance


A method for Calculating the Water Balance
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 5 Wind and Circulation Patterns
Atmospheric Pressure
Factors Influencing Air Motion




Newton’s Laws of Motion




Pressure Gradient




Coriolis Effect




Friction




Rotational Forces
The Resulting Patterns
The General Circulation




Meridional Circulation




Zonal Circulation
Tropical Circulation




Trade Winds




The Intertropical Convergence Zone
Mid-latitude Circulation
Polar Circulation
Seasonal Changes in the Global Pattern




Monsoons




Asian Monsoon
Periodic Local Winds




Land and Sea Breezes




Mountain and Valley Breezes




Föhn Winds
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 6 Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions
Ocean Currents
The Thermohaline Circulation
The Walker Circulation




El Niño




El Niño Episode of 1982-1983




El Niño Event of 1997-1998




El Niño and Northern Hemisphere Weather




Counterpoint-La Niña
The Impacts of El Niño




Agricultural Losses




Disease Outbreaks




Wildlife Losses
Forecasting El Niño
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation
Interannual Variation in the Monsoons
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 7 Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology
Air Masses
Fronts and Middle Latitude Cyclones




Cyclogenesis




Cyclones and Upper Air Circulation
Synoptic Climatic Studies


The Hemispheric Scale
Satellite Climatology




Orbits and Sensors




Limitations and Opportunities of Satellite Studies
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 8 Climatology of Atmospheric Storms
Tropical Cyclones




Formation of Tropical Cyclones




The Time and Place of Occurrence




Hurricane Surge and Coastal Flooding




North American Hurricanes




Hurricane Hazard in the United States
Thunderstorms




Associated Hazards
Tornadoes




Formation of Tornadoes




Distribution of Tornadoes




Hazards of Tornadoes




Tornado Outbreaks of 1925 and 1974




Tornado Forecasting




Radar-Tool for Analysis and Forecasting




Doppler Radar
Floods
Drought
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Part 2. CLIMATE CHANGE

Chapter 9 Natural Causes of Climate Change
Short-Term Changes




Variation in Solar Irradiance




Sunspot Activity




Variation in Atmospheric Dust




Human-Induced Changes in Earth’s Surface
Long-Term Climatic Changes




Earth–Sun Relationships




Distribution of Continents




Variation in the Oceans




Extraterrestrial Impacts
Other Theories
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 10 Reconstruction of Past Climates
Evidence from Ice




Glaciers and Glaciation




Ice Sheets and Cores




Periglacial Evidence
Ancient Sediments
Sea Level Changes
Past Life




The Faunal Evidence




The Floral Evidence
Climatic Change over Geologic Time
Climate Since the Ice Retreat
Evidence from the Historical Period




The Last 1000 Years
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 11 Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming
Carbon in the Environment
Changing Levels of Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide and the Theory of Global Warming
Future Changes in Carbon Dioxide
Other Greenhouse Gases


Methane


Permafrost and methane


Nitrogen oxides


Chlorofluorocarbons


Thermal Pollution
Changes in the Temperature Record
Future Changes in Global Temperatures
Politics of Climate Change
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 12 Climate Change and the Physical Environment
Antarctic Warming
Arctic Warming
Greenland
Sea Ice
Arctic Ice Shelves


Melting Permafrost
Melting of Earth's Mountain Glaciers


Asia


Africa


Europe and the Americas
Ocean Properties


Rising Temperatures


Rising Sea Level


Future Sea Level
Changing Weather Systems
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 13 Climate Change and the Living World
Terrestrial Systems


Length of Growing Season


North American Forests


Climate Change and Agriculture
Aquatic Systems


Coral Reefs


Fresh Water Systems
Impact of Rising Sea Level
Climate Change and Human Health
Spread of Tropical Diseases


Malaria




West Nile Encephalitis Virus




Dengue Fever




Chikungunya (Chicken Guinea)




Cholera




Plague
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 14 Changes in Atmospheric Chemistry
Atmospheric Pollutants




Particulates




Carbon Monoxide




Sulfur Compounds




Nitrogen Oxides




Surface Ozone




Atmospheric Brown Clouds
Acid precipitation




Global Distribution of Acid Rain




Impact of Acid Precipitation on Terrestrial Systems




Acid Rain and Human Health




Impact of Acid Rain on Structures
Stratospheric Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation
Stratospheric Ozone




Chlorofluorocarbons




Antarctic Ozone Hole




Global Decline in Ozone




International Response to Ozone Depletion




Ultraviolet Radiation and Living Organisms




Ultraviolet-B and Human Health




Future Depletion of Ozone
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Part 3. REGIONAL CLIMATOLOGY

Chapter 15 Regional Climates: Scales of Study
Definitions
Microclimates




General Characteristics of Microclimates




Role of Surface Cover




Role of Topography
Local and Mesoscale Climates




Forest Climates




Mesoscale Climates
Macroscale Climates
Classification of World Climates




Approach to Classification
The Köppen System
Climate and the Distribution of Vegetation




Forests




Deserts




Grasslands




Colder Realms: Taiga and Tundra




Disturbed Formations
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 16 Tropical Climates
Radiation and Temperature
Precipitation
The tropical rainforest Climate (Af)




The Rainforest Biome




Species Diversity




Tropical Deforestation




Deforestation in the Amazon River Valley




The Galapagos: An Equatorial Dry Region




Global Warming in the Tropics
The Tropical Wet-and-Dry Climate(Aw)
The Tropical Deserts (BWh)
Coastal Deserts
Desert Storms
Desertification
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 17 Mid-Latitude Climates
General Characteristics




Middle latitude Circulation




Summer




Winter
Climatic Types




Midlatitude Wet Climates




Marine West-Coast Climates




Midlatitude Winter-Dry Climates




Midlatitude Summer-Dry Climates




Midlatitude Deserts
Warming in North America
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 18 Polar and Highland Climates
The Arctic Basin




Polar Lows and Arctic Hurricanes
The Polar Wet and Dry Climate
The Antarctic Continent


The Energy Balance




The Windy Continent




Precipitation
The Polar Wet Climate
Highland Climates
Chinook Winds
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Part 4. APPLIED CLIMATOLOGY

Chapter 19 The Human Response to Climate
The Physiological Response
Biometeorological Indices
Solar Radiation and People
Climate and Health




Climatotherapy




Morbidity and Mortality
Climate and Architecture




Climate and Primitive Constructions




Climate and Modern Structures




Heating and Cooling Degree Days




The Building Fabric




Regional House Design
Urban Climates




The Modified Processes




The Observed Results
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 20 Climate, Agriculture, and Industry
Agriculture




Climate and Crop Distribution




Extending the Climatic Limits




Climate and Crop Yields
Industry




Industrial Location




Energy Production
Transportation




Air Transport




Shipping




Land Transportation
Tourism and Commerce




Tourism




Commerce
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Appendix
Glossary
Bibliography
Index

Customer Reviews