Accurate, data-driven authorship with expanded interactivity leads to greater student engagement
Unrivaled problem sets, notable scientific accuracy and currency, and remarkable clarity have made Chemistry: The Central Science the leading general chemistry text for more than a decade. Trusted, innovative, and calibrated, the text increases conceptual understanding and leads to greater student success in general chemistry by building on the expertise of the dynamic author team of leading researchers and award-winning teachers.
In this new edition, the author team draws on the wealth of student data in Mastering™ Chemistry to identify where students struggle and strives to perfect the clarity and effectiveness of the text, the art, and the exercises while addressing student misconceptions and encouraging thinking about the practical, real-world use of chemistry. New levels of student interactivity and engagement are made possible through the enhanced eText 2.0 and Mastering Chemistry, providing seamlessly integrated videos and personalized learning throughout the course .
Also available with Mastering Chemistry
Mastering™ Chemistry is the leading online homework, tutorial, and engagement system, designed to improve results by engaging students with vetted content. The enhanced eText 2.0 and Mastering Chemistry work with the book to provide seamless and tightly integrated videos and other rich media and assessment throughout the course. Instructors can assign interactive media before class to engage students and ensure they arrive ready to learn. Students further master concepts through book-specific Mastering Chemistry assignments, which provide hints and answer-specific feedback that build problem-solving skills. With Learning Catalytics™ instructors can expand on key concepts and encourage student engagement during lecture through questions answered individually or in pairs and groups. Mastering Chemistry now provides students with the new General Chemistry Primer for remediation of chemistry and math skills needed in the general chemistry course.
Note: You are purchasing a standalone product; Mastering™ Chemistry does not come packaged with this content. Students, if interested in purchasing this title with Mastering Chemistry , ask your instructor for the correct package ISBN and Course ID. Instructors, contact your Pearson representative for more information.
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0134292812 / 9780134292816 Chemistry: The Central Science Plus Mastering Chemistry with eText -- Access Card Package
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Mastering Chemistry should only be purchased when required by an instructor.
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About the Author
THEODORE L. BROWN received his Ph.D. from Michigan State University in 1956. Since then, he has been a member of the faculty of the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, where he is now Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus. He served as Vice Chancellor for Research, and Dean of The Graduate College, from 1980 to 1986, and as Founding Director of the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology from 1987 to 1993. Professor Brown has been an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Research Fellow and has been awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship. In 1972 he was awarded the American Chemical Society Award for Research in Inorganic Chemistry and received the American Chemical Society Award for Distinguished Service in the Advancement of Inorganic Chemistry in 1993. He has been elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Chemical Society.
H. EUGENE LEMAY, JR., received his B.S. degree in Chemistry from Pacific Lutheran University (Washington) and his Ph.D. in Chemistry in 1966 from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He then joined the faculty of the University of Nevada, Reno, where he is currently Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus. He has enjoyed Visiting Professorships at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, at the University College of Wales in Great Britain, and at the University of California, Los Angeles. Professor LeMay is a popular and effective teacher, who has taught thousands of students during more than 40 years of university teaching. Known for the clarity of his lectures and his sense of humor, he has received several teaching awards, including the University Distinguished Teacher of the Year Award (1991) and the first Regents’ Teaching Award given by the State of Nevada Board of Regents (1997).
BRUCE E. BURSTEN received his Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Wisconsin in 1978. After two years as a National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow at Texas A&M University, he joined the faculty of The Ohio State University, where he rose to the rank of Distinguished University Professor. In 2005, he moved to the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, as Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. Professor Bursten has been a Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation Teacher-Scholar and an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Research Fellow, and he is a Fellow of both the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Chemical Society. At Ohio State he has received the University Distinguished Teaching Award in 1982 and 1996, the Arts and Sciences Student Council Outstanding Teaching Award in 1984, and the University Distinguished Scholar Award in 1990. He received the Spiers Memorial Prize and Medal of the Royal Society of Chemistry in 2003, and the Morley Medal of the Cleveland Section of the American Chemical Society in 2005. He was President of the American Chemical Society for 2008. In addition to his teaching and service activities, Professor Bursten’s research program focuses on compounds of the transition-metal and actinide elements.
CATHERINE J. MURPHY received two B.S. degrees, one in Chemistry and one in Biochemistry, from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, in 1986. She received her Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Wisconsin in 1990. She was a National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health Postdoctoral Fellow at the California Institute of Technology from 1990 to 1993. In 1993, she joined the faculty of the University of South Carolina, Columbia, becoming the Guy F. Lipscomb Professor of Chemistry in 2003. In 2009 she moved to the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, as the Peter C. and Gretchen Miller Markunas Professor of Chemistry. Professor Murphy has been honored for both research and teaching as a Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar, an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Research Fellow, a Cottrell Scholar of the Research Corporation, a National Science Foundation CAREER Award winner, and a subsequent NSF Award for Special Creativity. She has also received a USC Mortar Board Excellence in Teaching Award, the USC Golden Key Faculty Award for Creative Integration of Research and Undergraduate Teaching, the USC Michael J. Mungo Undergraduate Teaching Award, and the USC Outstanding Undergraduate Research Mentor Award. Since 2006, Professor Murphy has served as a Senior Editor for the Journal of Physical Chemistry. In 2008 she was elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Professor Murphy’s research program focuses on the synthesis and optical properties of inorganic nanomaterials, and on the local structure and dynamics of the DNA double helix.
PATRICK M. WOODWARD received B.S. degrees in both Chemistry and Engineering from Idaho State University in 1991. He received a M.S. degree in Materials Science and a Ph.D. in Chemistry from Oregon State University in 1996. He spent two years as a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Physics at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In 1998, he joined the faculty of the Chemistry Department at The Ohio State University where he currently holds the rank of Professor. He has enjoyed visiting professorships at the University of Bordeaux in France and the University of Sydney in Australia. Professor Woodward has been an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Research Fellow and a National Science Foundation CAREER Award winner. He currently serves as an Associate Editor to the Journal of Solid State Chemistry and as the director of the Ohio REEL program, an NSF-funded center that works to bring authentic research experiments into the laboratories of first- and second-year chemistry classes in 15 colleges and universities across the state of Ohio. Professor Woodward’s research program focuses on understanding the links between bonding, structure, and properties of solid-state inorganic functional materials.
MATTHEW W. STOLTZFUS received his B.S. degree in Chemistry from Millersville University in 2002 and his Ph. D. in Chemistry in 2007 from The Ohio State University. He spent two years as a teaching postdoctoral assistant for the Ohio REEL program, an NSF-funded center that works to bring authentic research experiments into the general chemistry lab curriculum in 15 colleges and universities across the state of Ohio. In 2009, he joined the faculty of Ohio State where he currently holds the position of Chemistry Lecturer. In addition to lecturing general chemistry, Stoltzfus accepted the Faculty Fellow position for the Digital First Initiative, inspiring instructors to offer engaging digital learning content to students through emerging technology. Through this initiative, he developed an iTunes U general chemistry course, which has attracted over 120,000 students from all over the world. Stoltzfus has received several teaching awards, including the inaugural Ohio State University 2013 Provost’s Award for Distinguished Teaching by a Lecturer and he is recognized as an Apple Distinguished Educator.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction: Matter, Energy, and Measurement
2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
3. Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry
4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution
6. Electronic Structure of Atoms
7. Periodic Properties of the Elements
8. Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding
9. Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories
11. Liquids and Intermolecular Forces
12. Solids and Modern Materials
13. Properties of Solutions
14. Chemical Kinetics
15. Chemical Equilibrium
16. Acid—Base Equilibria
17. Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria
18. Chemistry of the Environment
19. Chemical Thermodynamics
21. Nuclear Chemistry
22. Chemistry of the Nonmetals
23. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
24. The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry
Properties of Water
Thermodynamic Quantities for Selected Substances at 298.15 K (25
Aqueous Equilibrium Constants
Standard Reduction Potentials at 25
Answers to Selected Exercises
Answers to Give It Some Thought
Answers to Go Figure
Answer to Selected Practice Exercises
Photo and Art Credits
To the Instructor
Throughout the evolution of this text, certain goals have guided our writing efforts. The first is that a text should show students the importance of chemistry in their major areas of study, as well as in their daily lives. We believe that students are more enthusiastic about learning chemistry when they see its importance to their own goals and interests. With this in mind, we have included interesting and significant applications of chemistry. At the same time, the text provides the background in modem chemistry that students need to serve their professional interests, and, as appropriate, to prepare for more advanced chemistry courses.
Second, we want students to see not only that chemistry provides the basis for much of what goes on in our world but also that it is a vital, continually developing science. We have kept the book up to date in terms of new concepts and applications and have tried to convey the excitement of the field.
Third, we feel that if the text is to support your role as teacher effectively, it must be addressed to the students. We have sought to keep our writing clear and interesting and the book attractive and well-illustrated. Furthermore, we have provided numerous in-text study aids for students, including carefully placed descriptions of problem-solving strategies. Together, we have over a hundred years of teaching experience. We hope this is evident in our pacing and choice of examples.
In the present edition the first five chapters give a largely macroscopic, phenomenological view of chemistry. The basic concepts introducedsuch as nomenclature,stoichiometry, and thermochemistryprovide necessary background for many of the laboratory experiments usually performed in general chemistry. We believe that an early introduction to thermochemistry is desirable because so much of our understanding of chemical processes is based on considerations of energy change. Thermochemistry is also important when we come to a discussion of bond enthalpies.
The next four chapters (Chapters 6-9) deal with electronic structure and bonding. The focus then changes to the next level of the organization of matter: the states of matter (Chapters 10 and 11) and solutions (Chapter 13). Also included in this section is an applications chapter on the chemistry of modern materials (Chapter 12), which builds on the student's understanding of chemical bonding and intermolecular interactions.
The next several chapters examine the factors that determine the speed and extent of chemical reactions: kinetics (Chapter 14), equilibria (Chapters 15-17), thermodynamics (Chapter 19), and electrochemistry (Chapter 20). Also in this section is a chapter on environmental chemistry (Chapter 18), in which the concepts developed in preceding chapters are applied to a discussion of the atmosphere and hydrosphere.
After a discussion of nuclear chemistry (Chapter 21), the final chapters survey the chemistry of nonmetals, metals, organic chemistry, and biochemistry (Chapters 22-25). These chapters are developed in a parallel fashion and can be treated in any order.
Our chapter sequence provides a fairly standard organization, but we recognize that not everyone teaches all the topics in exactly the order we have chosen. We have therefore made sure that instructors can make common changes in teaching sequence with no loss in student comprehension. In particular, many instructors prefer to introduce gases (Chapter 10) after stoichiometry or after thermochemistry rather than with states of matter. The chapter on gases has been written to permit this change with no disruption in the flow of material. It is also possible to treat the balancing of redox equations (Sections 20.1 and 20.2) earlier, after the introduction of redox reactions in Section 4.4. Finally, some instructors like to cover organic chemistry (Chapter 25) right after bonding (Chapter 9). With the exception of the discussion of stereochemistry (which is introduced in Section 24.3), this, too, is a seamless move.
We have always attempted to introduce students to descriptive organic and inorganic chemistry by integrating examples throughout the text. You will find pertinent and relevant examples of "real" chemistry woven into all the chapters as a means to illustrate principles and applications. Some chapters, of course, more directly address the properties of elements and their compounds, especially Chapters 4, 7,12,18, and 22-25. We also incorporate descriptive organic and inorganic chemistry in the end-of-chapter exercises.
Changes in this Edition
Our major goal in the ninth edition has been to strengthen an already strong textbook while retaining its effective and popular style. The traditional strengths of Chemistry: The Central Science include its clarity of writing, its scientific accuracy and currency, its strong end-of-chapter exercises, and its consistency in level of coverage. In making changes to this edition, we have tried to be responsive to the feedback we received from the faculty and students who used the eighth edition. Students appreciate the student-friendly style of writing, and we have preserved this style in the, ninth edition. Sections that have seemed most difficult to students have in many cases been rewritten and augmented with improved artwork. In order to make the text easier for students to use, we have tried for an even more open, clean design in the layout of the book.
We have also continued to strengthen the art program, to better convey the beauty, excitement, and concepts of chemistry to students. The expanded use of computer-generated molecular art gives students a greater sense of molecular architecture through ball-and-stick and space-filling representations of molecules. In addition, we have added charge distribution maps in selected cases where we believe they can enhance student understanding. We have continued a greater emphasis on three-dimensional representations in the line art. Our goal continues to be to use color and photos to emphasize important points, to focus the student's attention, and to give the text an uncluttered, inviting look.
We still emphasize concept-oriented learning throughout the text. A new feature in this edition is the What's Ahead summary at the opening of each chapter. What's Ahead gives the student a brief overview of the major ideas and relationships that the chapter will cover. We expect that students will begin their shady of the chapter with more confidence for having a sense of the direction in which their study will take them. Concept links continue to provide easy-to-see cross-references to pertinent material covered earlier in the text. The essays titled Strategies in Chemistry, which provide advice to students on problem solving and "thinking like a chemist," continue to be an important feature. We have added more conceptual exercises to the end-of-chapter exercises. The Integrative Exercises, which give students the opportunity to solve more challenging problems that integrate concepts from the present chapter with those of previous chapters, have also been increased in number.
We have kept the text fresh by keeping it current. References to current events, help students relate their studies of chemistry with their everyday life experiences. New essays in our well-received Chemistry at Work and Chemistry and Life series emphasize world events, scientific discoveries, and medical breakthroughs that have occurred since publication of the eighth edition. We maintain our focus on the positive aspects of chemistry, without neglecting the problems that cane arise in an increasingly technological world. Our goal is to help students appreciate the real-world perspective of chemistry and the ways in which chemistry affects their lives.
You'll also find that we've:
- Revised the end-of-chapter Exercises, with particular focus on the black-numbered exercises (those not answered in the Appendix).
- Integrated more conceptual questions into the end-of-chapter material. For the convenience of instructors, these are identified by the annotation in. the Annotated Instructor's Edition, but not in the student edition of the text.
- Updated the eMedia Exercises in the end-of-chapter material. These exercises take advantage of the integrated media components and extend student's understanding, using the advantages that interactive, media-rich presentations offer.
- Continued the practice of using a Student Activity icon in the margins to indicate where students can extend understanding of a concept or topic by looking at an activity located on the Web site or the Accelerator CD-ROM.
- Carried the stepwise, Analyze, Plan, Solve, Check, problem-solving strategy into a majority of the Sample Exercises of the book to provide additional guidance in problem solving.
- Added dual-column problem-solving strategies in selected Sample Exercises that outline the process underlying mathematical calculations to teach students how to better perform mathematical calculations.
- Reviewed and revised all chapters based on feedback from reviewers and users. For example, we have:
- Added a brief introduction to organic chemistry in Chapter 2.
- Improved the presentation of the first law of thermodynamics in Chapter 5.
- Expanded the discussion of superconductivity in Chapter 12.
- Revised the introductory treatment of equilibrium to eliminate the artificial distinction between equilibrium constants in gas and aqueous phases.
- Added a new section on Green Chemistry, which focuses on the environmental impacts of chemical processes.
- Improved the treatment of coordination compounds in Chapter 24.
Please see the next pages for more specific details about how the Ninth Edition's integrated learning program will help your students succeed.
For the Instructor
- Annotated Instructor's Edition (with Guide to Print and Media Resources) (0-13-038168-3). This special instructor's edition provides marginal notes and information for instructors and TAs, including MediaPortfolio and transparency icons, suggested lecture demonstrations, teaching tips, and background references from the chemical education literature for key topics.
- Solutions to Exercises (0-13-009798-5). Full solutions to all end-of-chapter exercises in the text are provided. With an instructor's permission, this manual may be made available to students.
- Instructor's Resource Manual (0-13-009802-7). This useful guide describes all the different resources available to instructors and shows how to integrate them into your course. Organized by chapter, this manual offers detailed lecture outlines and complete descriptions of all available lecture demonstrations, the animated concept sequences, all video demonstrations, common student misconceptions, and much more.
- Test Item File (0-13-009792-6). The Test Item File now provides a selection of more than 3800 test questions, a 25% increase over the previous version.
- TestGen-EQ (0-13-009793-4). New testbank software designed with algorithmic questions in mind. This computerized version of the Test Item File includes electronic versions of all 3800 test questions. TestGen-EQ allows you to create and tailor exams to your own needs and includes tools for course management, algorithmic question generation, and administering tests over a local area network.
- Transparencies (0-13-009794-2). Two-hundred seventy-six full-color images, more than ever before, are included in an easy-to-use binder. For each transparency, we've made the type even larger for easier viewing in large classrooms.
- Central Science LiveCompanion Web site. The Companion Web site is the focal point for access to the media suite. Instructors can use the Syllabus Manager to administer a date-driven syllabus, including on-line homework assignments or other activities. You can have your students practice their reading comprehension and skills in the Problem Solving Center, peruse the Web for chapter-related resources, or view the Student Activities referred to in the text. If you have adopted the use of the Premium Access Code to the Web site, the eChapters, media-rich presentations that echo the book, are also available to your students. Standard and Premium Access Codes are available; contact your Prentice Hall representative for more information.
- MediaPortfolio (0-13-009805-1). An instructor CD/DVD set that contains almost all the art from the text, more than 30 lab demonstration video segments, and more than a 100 animations of core concepts. Using the included MediaPortfolio software, instructors can browse for figures and other media elements by thumbnail and description, as well as search by key word or title. In addition, all of the Student Activities available on the student Accelerator CD are available on the instructor CD/DVD, as well. The images and videos can be cut and pasted, or dragged into your MS PowerPoint® lecture presentation or other documents. The set also contains the Instructor's Resource Manual in MS Word® format, a pre-built PowerPoint Presentation for every chapter, as well as all the responsive media elements specifically developed for Chemistry: The Central Science, Ninth Edition.
- Course Management Options. Prentice Hall provides support for course management systems that are most popular at institutions today, including WebCT®, WebAssign®, BlackBoard®, and Pearson Education's own CourseCompass® (powered by B1ackBoard). Course management systems allow complete course administration, including roster and gradebook management, distribution of course materials, setup and maintenance of bulletin boards and announcements, and other tasks.
Prentice Hall can provide the content for a complete chemistry course tailored to Chemistry: The Central Science, Ninth Edition, and your course earn even include the entire text on-line. In addition to the gallery of animations,, we provide quizzing and testing material and a wide range of customizing options. For example, instructors can edit questions, modify/delete/add toy the testing database, categorize material by level of difficulty, award different point values for different problems, and give partial credit.
- PH GradeAssist. PH GradeAssist is a new homework and assignment system that allows students unlimited practice with problems that are algorithmically generated and media-enhanced. Instructors can administer quizzes and assignments, control the content and assignment parameters¿ and receive assignments and view performance statistics with the built-in gradebook.
In addition, Prentice Hall has partnered with WebAssign, an online system that specializes in the administration of on-line homework. For information on this system, contact your PH representative.
For the Lab
- Laboratory Experiments (Nelson/Kemp) (0-13-009797-7). This manual includes 41 finely tuned experiments chosen to introduce students to basic labs techniques and to illustrate core chemical principles. It contains pre-lab questions and detachable report sheets. This new edition has been revised to correlate more tightly with the text. Safety and disposal information has also been updated.
- Annotated Instructor's Edition to Laboratory Experiments (0-13-009803-5). This AIE combines the full student lab manual with front and back appendices covering the proper disposal of chemical waste, safety instructions for the lab, descriptions of standard lab equipment and materials, answers toy questions, and more.
For the Student
- Central Science LiveThe media suite for the Ninth Edition consists of two, components that can stand alone or work in concert: the Companion Web site and the Accelerator CD. Access to the materials on the Companion Web site are available through both Standard and Premium Access Codes. Many of the rich media assets available on Central Science Live are available on both. the CD and on the Web site, and if used together, logging into the Web site provides a rapid, seamless, fully integrated experience for the student.
- Central Science LiveCompanion Web site. Now even more integrated and easier to use, this innovative on-line resource center is designed specifically to support and enhance Chemistry: The Central Science, Ninth Edition. Now the front-door for Central Science Live, it features:
- A Problem-Solving Center, where students have access to more than 2000 additional problemsincluding algorithmically generated questions and non-multiple-choice questionsall organized by chapter, each with specific hints and detailed feedback. Also included are cumulative quizzes and MCAT review questions.
- A Visualizing Molecules module, with pre-built 3-D models of molecules discussed in the text that can be manipulated in real time and displayed in different representations.
- Constantly updated Current Topics Module, linking your students to recently published articles from the lay press, and a Web Resources Center that links your students to other carefully selected, chemistry-related Web sites.
- A Student Activities module, with hundreds of movies, animations, and interactive simulations that help students discover chemistry. The movies show real chemistry being performed in demonstrations, the animations focus on molecular processes that can't be seen any other way, and the interactive simulations allow students to do experiments and draw conclusions based on simulated experimental results.
- eChapters, available only on the Premium version of the Web site, which are short synopses of the chapter material, written to include and point to the many Student Activities available in eMedia Chemistry, and including interactive and algorithmically generated self-assessment questions and worked examples. Many students find this an excellent way to preview or review the chapter material in the textbook.
- An eBook (electronic version of the full textbook) enables students to link directly from Web-based activities and from eChapters to the appropriate sections of the text. This allows students to work through Web exercises without having the actual text in front of them.
- Central Science LiveAccelerator CD. This book-specific companion to Chemistry: The Central Science, Ninth Edition, presents core chemistry content in a dynamic and interactive way. Designed for students, it includes:
- Over 60 short, narrated animations presenting selected topics that are more easily conveyed in a visual fashion, and over 30 laboratory demonstration video clips showing chemistry in live action.
- Over 100 Student Activities, responsive activities and simulations that allow students to learn by taking the initiative, changing conditions, adjusting variables, and establishing trends.
- MediaPortfolio software that allows thumbnail browsing, as well as search capabilities for words and media types, with links to text content.
- Solutions to Red Exercises (0-13-009799-3). Full solutions to all of the red-numbered exercises in the text are provided. (Short answers to red exercises are found in the appendix of the text).
- Solutions to Black Exercises (0-13-009790-X). Full solutions to all of the black-numbered exercises in the text are provided.
- Student's Guide (0-13-009795-0). This book assists students through the text material with chapter overviews, learning objectives, review of key terms, cumulative chapter review quizzes, and self-tests. Included are answers to all Student's Guide exercises. Chapter summaries are correlated to those in the Instructor's Resource Manual.
- Math Review Toolkit (0-13-009801-9). This free book reinforces the skills necessary to succeed in chemistry. It is keyed specifically to chapters in Chemistry: The Central Science, Ninth Edition, and includes additional mathematics review, problem-solving tools and examples, and a section on writing for the laboratory.
- Lecture Notebook (0-13-038169-1). This lecture notebook contains the art from the text with notetaking sections to obviate the need for students to spend time re-drawing figures in lecture and instead, concentrate on taking notes.
- Prentice Hall/The New York Times "Themes of the Times"Chemistry. This innovative program is designed to bring current and relevant applications into the classroom. Adopters of Chemistry: The Central Science, Ninth Edition, are eligible to receive these unique "mini-newspapers" that bring together a collection of the latest and best chemistry articles from the highly respected pages of The New York Times. (Updated twice annually.)
- Prentice Hall Molecular Model Set for General and Organic Chemistry, (0-13-955444-0). This ball-and-stick model kit is designed for use in general chemistry and the student's next course in organic chemistry. It includes trigonal bipyramidal and octahedral atom centers as well as 14 carbon atoms.
To the Student
Chemistry: The Central Science, Ninth Edition, has been written to introduce you to modem chemistry. During the many years that we have been practicing chemists, we have found chemistry to be an exciting intellectual challenge and an extraordinarily rich and varied part of our cultural heritage. We hope that as you advance in your study of chemistry, you will share with us some of that enthusiasm, excitement, and appreciation. We also hope that you will come to realize the importance of chemistry in your everyday life. As authors, we have, in effect, been engaged by your instructor to help you learn chemistry. Based on the comments of students and instructors who have used this book in its previous editions, we believe that we have done that job well. Of course, we expect the text to continue to evolve through future editions. We invite you to write to us to tell us what you like about the book so that we will know where we have helped your most. Also, we would like to learn of any shortcomings, so that we might further improve the book in subsequent editions. Our addresses are given at the end of the Preface.
Advice for Learning and Studying Chemistry
Learning chemistry requires both the assimilation of many new concepts and the development of analytical skills. In this text we have provided you with numerous tools to help you succeed in both. We have provided details of the features of this text in the "walk-through" on pages xxviii-xxxiii. You will find it helpful to examine those features.
As you proceed through your course in chemistry, it is important for you to) develop good study habits to help you in the learning process. We offer the following tips for success in your study of chemistry:
Don't fall behind! In your chemistry course, new topics will build on material already presented. If you don't keep up in your reading and problem solving¿ you will find it much harder to follow the lectures and discussions on current topics. "Cramming" just before an exam has been shown to be an ineffective way toy study any subject, chemistry included.
Focus your study. The amount of information you will receive in your chemistry course can sometimes seem overwhelming. It is essential to recognize those concepts and skills that are particularly important. Listen intently to the guidance and emphasis provided by your instructors. Pay attention to the skills stressed in the Sample Exercises and homework assignments. Notice the italicized statements in the text, and study the concepts presented in the chapter summaries.
Keep good lecture notes. Your lecture notes will provide you with a clear and concise record of what your instructor regards as the most important material toy learn. Use your lecture notes in conjunction with this text; that's your best way, to determine which material to study.
Skim topics in the text before they are covered in lecture. Reviewing a topic before lecture will make it easier for you to take good notes. First read the introduction and Summary, then quickly read through the chapter, skipping Sample Exercises and supplemental sections. Pay attention to the titles of sections and subsections, which give you a feeling for the scope of topics. Try to avoid thinking that you must learn and understand everything right away.
After lecture, carefully read the topics covered in class. You will probably need to read assigned material more than once to master it. As you read, pay attention to the concepts presented and to the application of these concepts in the Sample Exercises. Once you think you understand a Sample Exercise, test your understanding by working the accompanying Practice Exercise. As you progress through the text, you will encounter Sample Integrative Exercises: Putting Concepts Together. These are designed to help you see how concepts and methods learned in earlier chapters can be put together with newly learned materials.
Learn the language of chemistry. As you study chemistry, you will encounter many new words. It is important to pay attention to these words and to know their meanings, or the entities to which they refer. Knowing how to identify chemical substances from their names is an important skill; it can help you avoid painful mistakes on examinations.
Attempt all the assigned end-of-chapter exercises. Working the exercises that have been selected by your instructor provides necessary practice in recalling and using the essential ideas of the chapter. You cannot learn merely by observing; you must be a participant. In particular, try to resist checking the Solutions Manual (if you have one) until you have made a sincere effort to solve the exercise yourself. If you really get stuck on an exercise, however, get help from your instructor, your teaching assistant, or from another student. Spending more than 20 minutes on a single exercise is rarely effective unless you know that it is particularly challenging.
Make use of the Web site. Some things are more easily learned by discovery, and others are best shown in three dimensions. Use the Companion Web site to this text to get the most out of your time in chemistry.
The bottom line is to work hard, study effectively, and use the tools that are available to you, including this textbook. We want to help you learn more about the world of chemistry and why it is the central science.