CCNA Routing and Switching Exam Cram: Master the Fundamentals of Cisco Routers and Switches

CCNA Routing and Switching Exam Cram: Master the Fundamentals of Cisco Routers and Switches

by Jeffrey T. Coe, Matthew Rees


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Covers the installation, configuration, and operation of simple-routed LAN, WAN, and switched LAN networks. Discusses remote access and integrating dial-up connectivity with traditional, remote LAN to LAN access, as well as supporting the high levels of performance required for new applications such as Internet commerce and multimedia. Demonstrates ways to optimize WAN through Internet solutions that reduce bandwidth and WAN cost.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781576106280
Publisher: Coriolis Group
Publication date: 06/28/2000
Series: Exam Cram 2 Series
Edition description: 2ND
Pages: 400
Product dimensions: 6.06(w) x 9.02(h) x 1.02(d)

Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1: Cisco Career Certification Exams

Exam taking is not something that most people anticipate eagerly, no matter how well prepared they are. In most cases, familiarity helps ameliorate test anxiety. In plain English, this means that you will probably not be as nervous when you take your fourth or fifth Cisco certification exam as when you take your first. Whether it is your first exam or your tenth, understanding the details of exam taking (how much time to spend on questions, the environment you will be in, and so on) and the exam software will help you to concentrate on the material, rather than on the setting. Likewise, mastering a few basic exam-taking skills should help you to recognize-and perhaps even outfox-some of the tricks and gotchas you are bound to find in some of the exam questions.

This chapter, besides explaining the exam environment and software, describes some proven exam-taking strategies that you can use to your advantage.

The Exam Situation

When you arrive at the exam testing center, you must sign in with an exam coordinator and show two forms of identification, one of which must be a photo ID. After you have signed in and your time slot arrives, you will be asked to deposit any books, bags, or other items you brought with you. Then, you will be escorted into a closed room. Typically, the room will be furnished with one to half a dozen computers, and each workstation will be separated from the others by dividers designed to keep you from seeing what is happening on someone else's computer. You will be furnished with a pen or pencil and a blank sheet of paper, or, in some cases, an erasable plastic sheet and an erasable felt-tippen. You are allowed to write any information you want on both sides of this sheet. Before the exam, memorize as much of the material that appears on the Cram Sheet (inside the front cover of this book) as you can and write that information on the blank sheet as soon as you are seated in front of the computer. You can refer to your rendition of the Cram Sheet anytime you like during the test, but you will have to surrender the sheet when you leave the room.

Most test rooms feature a wall with a large picture window. This permits the exam coordinator standing behind it to monitor the room, to prevent exam takers from talking to one another, and to observe anything out of the ordinary that might happen. The exam coordinator will have preloaded the appropriate Cisco certification 'on exam-for this book, that's Exam 640-507-and you will be per certification matted to start as soon as you are seated in front of the computer. All Cisco certification exams allow a certain maximum amount of time in which to complete the work (this time is indicated on the exam by an on-screen counter/ clock, so you can check the time remaining whenever you like). Exam 640-507 consists of 65 randomly selected questions. You may take up to 75 minutes to complete the exam. To pass, you are required to achieve a score of 822 or better on a scale of 300 to 1,000.

All Cisco certification exams are computer-generated and use a multiple-choice format. From time to time, you may be prompted to enter actual configuration commands as if you were at the command-line interface. It is important not to abbreviate the commands in anyway when this type of question is posed. Although this may sound quite simple, the questions are constructed not only to check your mastery of basic facts and figures about Cisco router configuration, but also to require you to evaluate one or more sets of circumstances or requirements. Often, you will be asked to give more than one answer to a question. Likewise, you might be asked to select the best or most effective solution to a problem from a range of choices, all of which are technically correct. Taking the exam is quite an adventure, and it involves real thinking. This book shows you what to expect and how to deal with the potential problems, puzzles, and predicaments.

Exam Layout and Design

Some exam questions require you to select a single answer, whereas others ask you to select multiple correct answers. The following multiple-choice question requires you to select a single correct answer. Following the question is a brief summary of each potential answer and why it is either right or wrong.

Answer b is correct. The destination network layer, or layer 3, address is the protocol-specific address to which this piece of data is to be delivered. The source network layer address is the originating host and plays no role in getting the information to the destination; therefore, answer a is incorrect. The source and destination MAC addresses are necessary for getting the data to the router or to the next hop address, but they are not used in pathing decisions; therefore, answers c and d are incorrect...

Table of Contents

Chapter 1Cisco Career Certification Exams1
The Exam Situation2
Exam Layout and Design3
Using Cisco's Exam Software Effectively5
Exam-Taking Basics5
Question-Handling Strategies6
Mastering the Inner Game7
Additional Resources7
Chapter 2Internetworking Concepts Overview11
Networking Fundamentals12
Transmission Media12
Media Access Methods13
Data Transmission Methods14
Network Standards14
The OSI Model15
Problems Associated with the Expanding Network16
Network Hardware Roles18
Increasing Throughput in an Ethernet Network22
Fast Ethernet22
Full-Duplex and Half-Duplex Ethernet23
Practice Questions25
Need to Know More?30
Chapter 3The OSI Model: Upper Layers31
The OSI Model32
A Layered Network Model32
Peer-to-Peer Communication33
Encapsulation and De-Encapsulation34
Application Layer36
Presentation Layer36
Session Layer37
Transport Layer38
Segment Upper-Layer Applications38
Establish End-to-End Connections38
Send Segments from One Host to Another39
Ensure Reliable Data Transport40
Practice Questions41
Need to Know More?47
Chapter 4The OSI Model: Lower Layers49
Network Layer50
Path Determination50
Routing Protocol Algorithms and Metrics52
Packet Switching53
Data Link Layer54
LAN Protocols55
WAN Protocols56
LLC Sublayer57
Media Access Control Sublayer58
Physical Layer59
Practice Questions60
Need to Know More?65
Chapter 5Working with Cisco Devices67
Cisco's Operating System68
Starting a Cisco Device68
User Interface69
User Mode69
Privileged Mode69
Context-Sensitive Help72
Command History75
Editing Commands75
Cisco Discovery Protocol76
CDP Configuration77
CDP Information77
Testing Other Devices78
Show Interfaces80
Practice Questions82
Need to Know More?87
Chapter 6LAN Switching89
Layer 2 Switching Technology90
Discovering MAC Addresses90
Filtering and Forwarding90
Preventing Loops91
Spanning Tree Protocol91
Cisco Switching Methods94
Cisco Switches95
Switch Startup95
Configuring the Switch97
Default Configuration97
Using the Menu-Driven Interface98
Using the CLI99
Using the Web Interface100
Practice Questions101
Need to Know More?104
Chapter 7Extending Switch Functionality105
Frame Tagging107
Trunk Connections108
Configuring VLANs110
Enabling VTP111
Enabling Trunking112
Creating VLANs112
Assigning VLAN to Ports113
Practice Questions115
Need to Know More?119
Chapter 8Router Configuration and Software Management121
Router Elements122
Router Modes122
Router Components123
Router Status124
Managing Configuration Files130
Types of Configuration Files130
Displaying the Running and Startup Configuration131
Configuring the Running and Startup Configuration Files132
Backing Up and Restoring Configuration Files132
Router Passwords134
Enable password and enable secret Password Commands134
Console and auxiliary Password Commands135
Virtual terminal Password Command135
Router Identification and Banner136
Initial Configuration of a Cisco Router137
Upgrading Cisco IOS Software139
Back Up Current IOS140
Upgrade IOS141
Reloading The Router143
Practice Questions144
Need to Know More?151
Chapter 9TCP/IP153
Background and History of TCP/IP154
TCP/IP Stack and the OSI Model154
Application Layer155
Transport Layer157
TCP Header Format159
Network Layer164
Network Interface Layer167
Practice Questions168
Need to Know More?173
Chapter 10IP Addressing and Subnetting175
IP Addressing176
Dotted Decimal Notation176
Classful Addressing178
Configure and Verify IP Addresses189
IP Host Names190
Verifying IP Addresses190
Monitoring IP192
Show IP Interface192
Show IP Protocol193
Show IP Route194
Practice Questions196
Need to Know More?201
Chapter 11Routing Protocols203
Routing Activities204
Routing Algorithms and Protocols204
Goals of Routing Protocols204
Types of Routing Protocols207
Routing Metrics209
Distance Vector vs. Link State211
Distance Vector Overview211
Link State Overview212
Network Discovery212
Topology Changes214
Distance Vector Problems214
Distance Vector Remedies215
Link State Problems217
Link State Remedies217
Routing Protocol Configuration and Review218
Advanced Distance Vector Protocol221
Integrated Multiprotocol Routing221
Practice Questions223
Need to Know More?229
Chapter 12Internet Package Exchange (IPX)231
NetWare Protocol Suite232
Upper Layer232
Transport Layer233
Network Layer233
Data Link and Physical Layers233
IPX Addressing233
IPX Encapsulation234
IPX Routing235
IPX Service Advertisement235
Configuring IPX237
Monitoring IPX238
Troubleshooting IPX242
Practice Questions244
Need to Know More?249
Chapter 13IP and IPX Access Lists251
IP Access Lists252
IP Standard Access Lists253
IP Extended Access Lists258
IPX Access Lists262
IPX Standard Access Lists263
IPX Extended Access Lists264
Monitor and Verify Access Lists266
Practice Questions268
Need to Know More?273
Chapter 14Wide Area Networking: Point-to-Point275
WAN Services276
HDLC Overview278
PPP Overview278
PPP Physical Layer279
PPP Connections280
PPP Authentication281
LCP Configuration Options282
Configuring PPP283
Monitoring PPP284
Practice Questions286
Need to Know More?289
Chapter 15Wide Area Networking: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)291
ISDN Overview292
Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface292
ISDN Protocols292
Functions and Reference Points293
Configuring ISDN295
Monitoring ISDN296
Practice Questions301
Need to Know More?303
Chapter 16Wide Area Networking: Frame Relay305
Frame Relay306
Virtual Circuits306
Configuring Frame Relay309
Nonbroadcast Multiaccess309
Monitoring Frame Relay311
Practice Questions314
Need to Know More?319
Chapter 17Sample Test321
Questions, Questions, Questions322
Picking Proper Answers322
Decoding Ambiguity323
Working within the Framework324
Deciding What to Memorize324
Preparing for the Test325
Taking the Test325
Sample Test326
Chapter 18Answer Key347

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