Care, Use, and Welfare of Marmosets as Animal Models for Gene Editing-Based Biomedical Research: Proceedings of a Workshop

Care, Use, and Welfare of Marmosets as Animal Models for Gene Editing-Based Biomedical Research: Proceedings of a Workshop

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Overview

The marmoset, a type of small monkey native to South America, is a research model of increasing importance for biomedical research in the United States and globally. Marmosets offer a range of advantages as animal models in neuroscience, aging, infectious diseases, and other fields of study. They may be particularly useful for the development of new disease models using genetic engineering and assisted reproductive technologies. However, concerns have been voiced with respect to the development of new marmoset-based models of disease, ethical considerations for their use, the supply of marmosets available for research, and gaps in guidance for their care and management.

To explore and address these concerns, the Roundtable on Science and Welfare in Laboratory Animal Use hosted a public workshop on October 22-23, 2018, in Washington, DC. The workshop focused on the availability of marmosets in the United States and abroad; animal welfare and ethical considerations stemming from the use of wildtype and genetically modified marmosets; and standards of housing and care, dietary needs, and feeding requirements for marmosets in captivity. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.


Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780309488518
Publisher: National Academies Press
Publication date: 08/26/2019
Pages: 122
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.40(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1

Workshop Statement of Task 2

2 Context for the Use of Marmosets as Animal Models 5

History 5

Current Use and Key Advantages 6

Key Challenges 8

References 9

3 Ethical Considerations 11

Theoretical Considerations 11

Practical Considerations 16

Discussion 18

References 21

4 Current Research Applications 23

Neuroscience 23

Aging 31

Infectious Disease 33

Gene Editing and Transgenic Animals 36

Discussion 38

References 38

5 Marmoset Genomics and Genetic Diversity 41

Characterizing the Marmoset Genome 41

Genetic Diversity in Marmosets 44

References 49

6 Marmoset Supply and Availability 51

Marmosets in the Wild 51

Breeding and Transportation 54

References 58

7 Marmoset Care and Management 61

Routine Care 61

Diet 64

Habits and Environment 68

Reproduction 69

Disease Prevention and Management 72

Pain Prevention and Management 77

Discussion 80

Suggested Reading 80

8 Final Remarks 85

Appendixes

A Workshop Agenda 87

B Professional Biosketches 95

Figures

2-1 Areas of focus for research using tamarins and marmosets over the decades 6

2-2 Number of citations on PubMed that include the term marmosets, 1960 to the present 7

4-1 Comparison of brain characteristics of humans, macaques, marmosets, and mice 25

4-2 Anatomical in vivo T1w-MPRAGE 150 μm3 MRI of the normal marmoset brain 26

4-3 Schematic of cradle setup for performing functional MRI (fMRI) on conscious awake marmosets 26

4-4 Test methods and biomarkers for the progression of Parkinson's disease in marmosets 28

4-5 Causes of death in marmosets older than 6 years of age and younger than 6 years of age at Southwest National Primate Research Center 32

5-1 Genetic analyses show clusters of genetic similarity within each research center 48

6-1 Marmoset genera Callithrix and Mico 52

6-2 U.S. imports of macaques and marmosets, 2010-2018 55

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