ISBN-10:
0132615630
ISBN-13:
9780132615631
Pub. Date:
03/14/2012
Publisher:
Pearson
The Convergence of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Multiple Identities in Counseling / Edition 4

The Convergence of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Multiple Identities in Counseling / Edition 4

by Tracy L. Robinson-WoodTracy L. Robinson-Wood
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Overview

Pre- and in-service counselors get a wealth of authoritative suggestions and practical advice for working effectively with a variety of clients from today’s multiculturally diverse world. Through the author’s careful examination of convergence—the intersection of race, ethnicity, gender, and other primary identity constructs within the context of counseling—readers see their roles and responsibilities as agents of transformation, while recognizing the way in which dominant cultural beliefs and values furnish and perpetuate clients’ feelings in both the therapeutic process and within the larger society.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780132615631
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 03/14/2012
Pages: 312
Product dimensions: 7.30(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.50(d)

Table of Contents

Part 1 Imaging Diversity 1

Chapter 1 Multiple Identities Defined 1

Multicultural Counseling and Psychology Defined 3

Diversity: An Overview 5

A, B, and C Dimensions 6

Conceptualization of the Self 7

Images of Diversity 8

Culture 8

Race 9

Ethnicity 10

Gender 11

Sexuality 12

Disability 13

Socioeconomic Class 14

Spirituality 15

Implications for Counselors and Psychologists 16

Case Study: Desperation 16

Summary 19

Chapter 2 Multicultural Competencies and Guidelines 20

Multicultural Competencies 21

Competency One: Counselor Awareness of Own Cultural Values and Biases 21

Competency Two: Counselor Awareness of Client's Worldview 21

Competency Three: Counselor Use of Culturally Appropriate Intervention Strategies 22

Guidelines 24

Diversity Training 24

Assessment and Research 26

Implications for Counselors and Psychologists 28

Case Study: Client Identities 29

Summary 31

Chapter 3 Statused Identities 32

Identities as Status: The Contextual and Social Construction of Differences Model 32

Assumptions of Hierarchical Socialization Patterns 34

Racism 35

Patriarchy 39

Sexism 40

Homophobia 41

Able-Bodyism 41

Class Elitism 42

Ageism 43

Implications for Counselors and Psychologists 44

Case Study: The Difference Class Makes 45

Summary 47

Part 2 Valued Cultures 48

Chapter 4 Native Americans and Alaskan Natives 48

Harmony and Balance 48

History 49

Demography 50

Social, Psychological, and Physical Health Issues 52

Cultural Philosophies and Values 54

Acculturation 56

Case Study: A Wounded Mind 58

Implications for Counselors and Psychologists 59

Summary 60

Chapter 5 Latinos 61

The Spanish, Portuguese, Indians, Asians, and Africans 62

Demography 62

Geography 63

Migratory Patterns from Mexico 64

Social, Psychological, and Physical Health Issues 65

Migration and Acculturation 66

Cultural Orientation and Values 68

Implications for Counselors and Psychologists 71

Case Study: Oblivious 72

Summary 73

Chapter 6 People of African Descent 74

History, CE 500-1500 75

The Slave Trade 75

Resistance to Slavery 77

Demographic Trends 78

Social, Psychological, and Physiological Health Issues 78

Physical Appearance 80

Cultural Orientation and Values 81

Implications for Counselors and Psychologists 85

Case Study: Anxiety Attacks 85

Summary 87

Chapter 7 People of Asian Descent, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders 88

Migratory Patterns 89

Demography 91

Social, Psychological, and Physical Health Issues 92

Acculturation and Experiences in America 97

Cultural Orientation and Values 99

Implications for Counselors and Psychologists 101

Case Study: Dual Diagnosis 101

Summary 104

Chapter 8 People of the Middle East and Arab Americans 105

The Africans, Asians, Europeans, and Arabs 106

Muslims and Arabs: Differences and Similarities 107

Migratory Patterns from the Middle East 108

Demography 109

Social, Psychological, and Physical Health Issues 109

Cultural Orientation and Values 112

Implications for Counselors and Psychologists 113

Case Study: Perceptions of Dangerousness 114

Summary 115

Part 3 Converging Identities 116

Chapter 9 Converging Race 116

The Social Construction of Race 116

Race and Science 119

Origins of Racial Groups 121

Racial and Ethnic Identity Development 122

Ethnic Identity 123

Native American Identity 124

Asian American Identity Development 125

African American Racial Identity 126

Latino Identity Development 128

White Racial Identity Development 130

Optimal Theory Applied to Identity Development 132

Implications for Counselors and Psychologists 133

Case Study: Teaching Privilege to the Privileged 135

Summary 137

Chapter 10 Converging Biracial and Multiracial Identities 138

Definitions 139

Demography 139

The One-Drop Rule 142

The Fluidity of Race 144

Biracial and Multiracial Identity Development 145

Research and Biracial and Multiracial Populations 147

Biracial Identity Development 147

Case Study: Denial of Self 149

Summary 152

Chapter 11 Converging Gender 153

Gender Definitions 154

Gender and Biology 155

The Social Construction of Gender 155

Undoing Gender 160

Sex and Gender Roles 162

Gender and Emotion 162

Gender and the Body 164

Gender and Experiences in Therapy 168

Gender Identity Models 170

The Womanist Model 170

White Male Identity Development Model 171

Implications for Counselors and Psychologists 171

Case Study: Building Rapport 173

Summary 175

Chapter 12 Converging Socioeconomic Class 176

The Invisibility of Class as a Variable in Counseling 177

The Intersections of Class 178

Class: An Identity Construct 179

Middle-Class Bias and Counselor Training 180

The Fluidity of Class-Status 183

Middle-Class Bias and Ethical Standards 184

Classism 186

Implications for Counselors and Psychologists 187

Case Study: Class Divide 188

Summary 191

Chapter 13 Converging Sexuality 192

Definitions and Terminology 193

Narrative Questions 197

The Importance of a Focus on Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in Counseling 197

Developmental Processes 200

Cass's Model of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Sexual Identity Formation 201

Troiden's Homosexual Identity Development Model 205

Sullivan's Model of Sexual Identity Development 206

Counseling Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals of Color 206

Implications for Counselors and Psychologists 207

Case Study: Assigning Gender 209

Summary 211

Chapter 14 Converging Disability 212

Understanding Disability 213

Disability Studies 214

The Social Construction of Disability 215

Perfection, Beauty, and the Able Body 217

Implications for Counselors and Psychologists 219

Case Study: Rethinking Manhood 220

Summary 222

Chapter 15 Converging Spirituality 223

Spirituality and Religion Defined 223

Case Study: Crises of Faith 224

Clinical Skills in Integrating Spirituality and Psychotherapy 226

Spirituality, Therapy, and Cultural Considerations 228

Diverse Healing Strategies 230

Effective Lay-Led Healing 230

Other Approaches 232

Creative Arts 232

Wellness 232

Implications for Counselors and Psychologists 232

Summary 233

Epilogue 234

References 235

Name Index 269

Subject Index 275

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