This book is the third in aseries of publications devoted to the biogeographieal and ecological research in the Southern Hemisphere, published in the "Monographiae Biologicae". After dealing with Australia (vol. VIII) and Southern Africa (Vol. XIV) it was thought essential to include Antarctiea in this series. Ever since the expedition of the "Belgiea" made the first suc cessful wintering within the antarctie circle in 1898 and brought back a very rieh harvest of scientific data, Belgium kept a vivid interest in Antarctiea and took an active part in the modern and international exploration of this vast continent. As part of their programs for the International Geophysieal Year (I. G. Y. ) twelve nations established permanent or semi-permanent bases on the Antarctie Continent or on subantarctie islands. Thus a new era of vast and free international scientific collaboration in the Antarctie was opened and it culminated in the formulation and the signing of the Antarctic Treaty (Washington 1959). It was recognized and accepted that "Antarctiea" shall be used for peaceful purposes only and "Freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctiea and coopera tion toward that end, as applied during the I. G. Y. , shall continue . . " In order to organize this collaboration e. g. by full exchange of programs and resuIts a "Special Committee on Antarctie Research" (S. C. A. R. ) was founded in 1957.