Beethoven wrote 32 sonatas for piano. The final installment, Volume 4, edited by Stewart Gordon, contains Sonatas 25-32, written between 1809 and 1822 and published shortly thereafter. Of the eight sonatas in this volume, autographs exist in whole or in part for all but Op. 106, missing since World War II. This edition is based on the existing autographs and the first editions. Dr. Gordon discusses a variety of topics including Beethoven's life; the pianos of his time and their limitations; Beethoven's use of articulation, ornamentation, tempi; and the age-old challenge of attempting to determine the definitive interpretation of Beethoven's music. Valuable performance recommendations, helpful fingering suggestions and ornament realizations are offered in this comprehensive critical body of Beethoven's sonatas. Where performance options are open to interpretation, other editors' conclusions are noted, enabling students and teachers to make informed performance decisions. Titles: Op. 79 ("Sonatine"); Op. 81a; Op. 90; Op. 101; Op. 106 ("Hammer-Klavier"); Op. 109; Op. 110; and Op. 111. 264 pages.