Atmospheric Chemistry: From The Surface To The Stratosphere

Atmospheric Chemistry: From The Surface To The Stratosphere

by Grant Ritchie

Hardcover

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Overview

Understanding the composition and chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere is essential to global ecological and environmental policy making and research. Atmospheric changes as a result of both natural and anthropogenic activity have affected many of the Earth's natural systems throughout history, some more seriously than others, and such changes are ever more evident with increases in both global warming and extreme weather events. Atmospheric Chemistry considers in detail the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, that gives rise to our weather systems and climate, soaks up our pollutants and protects us from solar UV radiation.The development of the complex chemistry occurring on Earth can be explained through application of basic principles of physical chemistry, as is discussed in this book. It is therefore accessible to intermediate and advanced undergraduates of chemistry, with an interdisciplinary approach relevant to meteorologists, oceanographers, and climatologists. It also provides an ideal opportunity to bring together many different aspects of physical chemistry and demonstrate their relevance to the world we live in.This book was written in conjunction with Astrochemistry: From the Big Bang to the Present Day, Claire Vallance (2017) World Scientific Publishing.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781786341754
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Europe Ltd
Publication date: 04/19/2017
Series: Essential Textbooks In Chemistry Series
Pages: 224
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents

Preface v

About the Author vii

Acknowledgements ix

List of Figures xv

List of Tables xxi

1 The Physical and Chemical Properties of the Earth's Atmosphere 1

1.1 Structure of the Atmosphere 3

1.1.1 The Troposphere 4

1.1.2 The Stratosphere 5

1.1.3 The Upper Layers of the Atmosphere 6

1.2 Atmospheric Pressure: The Hydrostatic Equation, Mixing Ratios, and Moisture 9

1.2.1 The Hydrostatic Equation 9

1.2.2 Mixing Ratios and Column Abundances 11

1.2.3 Water in the Atmosphere 12

1.3 Atmospheric Temperature Profiles 15

1.3.1 The Tropospheric Temperature Profile: The Adiabatic Lapse Rate 15

1.3.2 The Potential Temperature 18

1.3.3 The Stratospheric Temperature Profile 19

1.4 The Vertical Stability- of the Atmosphere: Buoyancy and Turbulence 21

1.4.1 Buoyancy 21

1.4.2 Turbulence 24

1.5 Horizontal Transport: Winds and Circulation 27

1.6 Chemical Kinetics in the Atmosphere 30

1.6.1 Atmospheric Lifetimes 30

1.6.2 Physical Loss Processes 33

1.6.3 Bimolecular and Termolecular Chemical Reactions 34

1.7 Summary 37

1.8 Questions 37

1.8.1 Essay-style Questions 37

1.8.2 Problems 38

2 Radiation in the Atmosphere 43

2.1 The Solar Spectrum and Its Attenuation by the Atmosphere 44

2.1.1 The Black Body Model 44

2.1.2 The Sola: Spectrum 45

2.1.3 O3 and O2 Absorption Spectra 46

2.1.3.1 O2 absorption 46

2.1.3.2 O3 absorption 47

2.2 Theory of Absorption and Scattering by Atmospheric Gases and Particles 48

2.2.1 Absorption and Scattering by Gases 48

2.2.1.1 Refractive index 48

2.2.1.2 Absorption 49

2.2.1.3 Scattering 51

2.2.2 Absorption and Scattering by Particles 53

2.2.3 Calculation of Photolysis Pares 55

2.3 The Greenhouse Effect 58

2.3.1 The Balanced Flux Model 60

2.3.2 Single Layer Atmosphere Radiative Model 63

2.3.3 The Relative Effectiveness of Different GHGs 65

2.3.4 Absorption Lineshapes and Saturation 67

2.4 Global Energy Balance and Radiative Forcing 71

2.4.1 The Global Radiation and Energy Balance 71

2.4.2 Radiative Forcing and Feedbacks 73

2.5 Questions 78

2.5.1 Essay-style Questions 78

2.5.2 Problems 79

3 Stratospheric Chemistry 83

3.1 The Chapman Cycle: Ox on Its Own 84

3.1.1 Odd Oxygen 84

3.1.2 The Photolysis of O2 and the Chapman Layer 88

3.1.3 Measuring the O3 Distribution: Remote Sounding 89

3.2 Stratospheric Ozone Loss: HOx NOx and CIOx Gas-phase Chemistry 91

3.2.1 Oxides of Nitrogen, NOx 92

3.2.2 Oxides of Hydrogen, HOx 95

3.2.3 CIOx Chemistry 97

3.2.4 Bromine Chemistry 101

3.2.5 Summary of the Catalytic Cycles 102

3.3 The Ozone Hole: The Importance of Heterogeneous Chemistry 104

3.3.1 O3 Column Amounts over the Antarctic 104

3.3.2 Explaining Polar Ozone Losses 106

3.4 Future of Stratospheric Ozone Due to Cooling by Climate Change 112

3.5 Questions 113

3.5.1 Essay-style Questions 113

3.5.2 Problems 114

4 Tropospheric Chemistry 119

4.1 Tropospheric Photochemistry of Ozone and the O(1D) Radical 120

4.2 The OH Radical: The Atmosphere's Detergent 123

4.2.1 Reaction of OH with CO 124

4.2.2 Reaction of OH with CH4 125

4.3 Field Measurements of OH and HO2 127

4.4 Nitrogen Oxides and the Production of Tropospheric Ozone 129

4.5 Oxidation Chemistry at Night 132

4.6 NOx Reservoirs and Transporters: PAN 137

4.7 Photochemical Smog 138

4.8 Questions 143

4.8.1 Essay-like Questions 143

4.8.2 Problems 144

5 Aerosols and Heterogeneous Reactions 149

5.1 The Aerosol Size Distribution 149

5.2 Aerosol Composition 153

5.3 Aerosols and the Formation of Clouds 157

5.3.1 The Vapour Pressure of Water Droplets: Kelvin's Equation 157

5.3.2 Water Vapour and Aerosols: Hygroscopic Growth 159

5.3.3 The Role of Solute in Cloud Formation: Raoult's Law 161

5.3.4 Köhler Curves 162

5.3.5 Rates of Droplet Growth 164

5.4 The Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds, and their Effects on Climate 169

5.5 Reactions of Gases with Particles 172

5.5.1 Partitioning of Soluble Gases into Droplets 172

5.5.2 Heterogeneous Reactions on Droplets 175

5.6 Impact of Aerosols on Health and Air Quality 179

5.7 Summary 180

5.8 Questions 181

5.8.1 Essay-style Questions 181

5.8.2 Problems 181

Appendix A The Hydrostatic Equation 187

Appendix B The Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate 189

Answers to Numerical Problems 193

Index 195

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