AquaRating: An international standard for assessing water and wastewater services

AquaRating: An international standard for assessing water and wastewater services

Paperback

$210.00
Choose Expedited Shipping at checkout for guaranteed delivery by Friday, October 18

Overview

The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), in cooperation with the International Water Association (IWA), has developed a rating system that assesses the performance of water and sanitation service providers in a comprehensive way. AquaRating: An international standard for assessing water and wastewater services aims to provide an industry standard for utilities.

The innovative rating system seeks the improvement of the service delivered by means of a rigorous and systematic assessment. AquaRating comprises more than 100 assessment elements organized in eight rating areas: Service Quality, Efficiency in the Planning and Execution of Investments, Operating Efficiency, Business Management Efficiency, Financial Sustainability, Access to Service, Corporate Governance, Environmental Sustainability. Each of the assessment elements and consecutively rating areas is assigned a rating (from 0 to 100), which in turn are aggregated into a single rating for the utility. Assessment elements consist of qualitative good practices and quantitative indicators. The total compliance with practices and achievement of the most demanding indicators levels means delivery of an excellent service and, therefore, awards a maximum rating of 100 points.

AquaRating takes into account the quality of the information supporting the ratings results by correcting the rating for the reliability level of such information. The rating results are certifiable thanks to an independent audit of the supporting information. The expected benefits of the system are manifold:

• Utilities
- Identify areas of improvement, receive guidance and monitor progress over time.
- Obtain an external and credible performance rating, which contributes to foster reputation, accountability and acceptance by key stakeholders, gain access to new markets and finance, and attract qualified staff.
- Get access to a knowledge and assessment framework that fosters continuous learning.

• Governments, regulators and development agencies
- Use the system to stimulate utilities to maintain or improve their performance and to target technical assistance and finance according to the specific opportunities for improvement identified.

• Consumers
- Obtain better services in terms of access, quality, efficiency, sustainability and transparency.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781780407395
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Publication date: 08/07/2015
Pages: 398
Product dimensions: 6.12(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.75(d)

Read an Excerpt

CHAPTER 1

SQ Service Quality

The quality with which drinking water and wastewater services are delivered is undoubtedly the most conclusive element among those allowing assessment of utility management. This quality has a direct impact on users, their health, their comfort and their perception of the utility. It also reflects the consequences of current operating and management practices and, especially, of those carried out previously and which have made it possible to achieve current quality levels.

Assessment has been divided into four rating sub-areas, which consider aspects concerning quality of water delivered for consumption, delivery quantity and continuity parameters, conditions in which wastewater is collected and transported from properties and businesses, and forms of user service, including user perceptions of the set of services received.

The wastewater treatment service has been included as one of the rating criteria for the Environmental Sustainability area, as it is in relation to the environment that it is best integrated into the AquaRating system. Grouping it there does not detract from its nature as a service delivered and often billed separately and which, consequently, may be carried out according to certain standards and with differing degrees of efficiency.

Assessment of the Service Quality area is limited to conditions and results in terms directly linked to the service delivered, i.e. the efficacy with which the services are delivered. Hence, unlike other assessment areas, it does not incorporate considerations relative to the degree of efficiency in delivery of those services. However, it does include certain aspects indirectly related to planning or operating practices, such as structural capacity or of operation and control of equipment, facilities or processes.

The sub-areas of evaluation are:

SQ1 Drinking water quality

SQ2 Distribution of drinking water for use and consumption

SQ3 Wastewater collection

SQ4 User service

SQ Service Quality

SQ1 Drinking water quality

The quality of the service delivered in terms of the potability of the water delivered for use and consumption is assessed according to 3 indicators and 3 groups of applied practices and processes. The indicators assess the degree of coverage of the existing operational infrastructure used to treat raw water and transform it into water fit for consumption, the degree of compliance with standards relative to water for consumption applicable in each case, and the intensity with which quality control is performed on the water delivered. As far as the assessment elements related to the practices are concerned, these consider procedures intended to ensure that sufficient structural capacity exists to perform appropriate treatment, operation and control.

Practices

SQ1.1 Assurance of structural capacity for treatment and supply

SQ1.2 Assurance of appropriate supplied water quality

SQ1.3 Supervision and control of supplied water quality

Indicators

SQ1.4 Structural operational capacity for drinking "water treatment"

SQ1.5 Compliance with drinking water standards

SQ1.6 Supplied water quality control frequency

SQ1.1 Assurance of structural capacity for treatment and supply

Type: Best Practices

Service: Drinking Water

Normalization: Weighted by practices

Glossary: Applicable regulations, System, Conventional water treatment, Zones at risk of non-compliance with drinking water quality standards

Definition: Includes:

Practices Reliability Weight

1 Disinfection equipment exists and covers the entire T.1 3
2 Drinking "water treatment" facilities exist (with a nominal T.8 2
3 Alternative "treatment" facilities exist to provide drinking T.8 1
4 Analyses are carried out to identify "zones at risk of not T.4 1
5 Distribution network design criteria exist that consider water T.2 1
6 Studies are carried out to identify zones in which disinfectant T.4 1
SQ1.2 Assurance of appropriate supplied water quality

Type: Best Practices

Service: Drinking Water

Normalization: Weighted by practices

Glossary: Applicable regulations, System, Contingency, Preventive maintenance, Corrective maintenance, Preventive maintenance protocol, Corrective maintenance protocol

Definition: Includes:

Practices Reliability Weight

1 Protection measures exist at all raw water intakes (signage, T.4 1
2 "Protocols" exist to perform "preventive maintenance" on T.2 1
3 "Protocols" exist to perform "corrective maintenance" on T.2 1
4 Automated processes exist in water treatment plants serving T.5 3
5 Protocols exist to analyze and resolve non-compliance with T.2 2
6 Safety plans exist for "contingencies" regarding water T.2 1
7 In "systems" with various alternative supply sources, T.120 1
8 Protocols exist to assure water quality when integrating new T.120 1
SQ1.3 Supervision and control of supplied water quality

Type: Best Practices

Service: Drinking Water

Normalization: Weighted by practices

Glossary: Applicable regulations, Corrective maintenance

Definition: Includes:

Practices Reliability Weight

1 Self-applied supplied water quality control protocols exist, as T.6 1
2 Laboratories that carry out the analyses (whether own or T.2 2
3 Operational equipment measuring physical and chemical T.1 2
4 Records are kept of operation parameters measured in all T.6 2
5 Alarm thresholds exist for "corrective maintenance" and T.2 3
6 Remote control systems are available to manage processes T.3 1
7 Automatic water quality monitoring stations are available (in T.1 1
8 A network of stationary facilities exists to facilitate T.8 2
SQ1.4 Structural operational capacity for drinking "water treatment"

Reflects the extent of coverage of facilities used to treat water for use and consumption. It is assessed by the percentage of population capable of receiving treated water via the treatment and distribution infrastructure in operation, regardless of treatment type and operational efficacy. Even though there will be cases in which the availability of this infrastructure will not depend directly on the entity which operates the "system", it is considered a relevant indicator for estimating the potential quality of the service (linked to water quality) that "system" users receive.

Definition: Percentage of population in the "geographical area to be rated" for drinking water supply served by supply eligible for "treatment" in a facility with sufficient nominal capacity and the corresponding distribution network.

Type: Indicator

Service: Drinking Water

Glossary: System, Conventional water treatment, Geographical area to be rated

Formula: ([CS1-V1]/[CS1-V2])*100 Unit: %

Normalization Function: Variables

[CS1-V1] Population served by drinking water supply eligible for "treatment" of some kind.

Definition: Population provided with a household connection in the "geographical area to be rated" for drinking water supply and served by supply susceptible to "treatment" of some kind in a facility with sufficient nominal capacity (at the end of the calendar year preceding the rating date).

Units: inhabitants

Reliability: Table 7

[CS1-V2] Population with a household connection in the "geographical area to be rated" for drinking water supply.

Definition: Population with a household connection in the "geographical area to be rated" for drinking water supply (at the end of the calendar year preceding the rating date).

Units: inhabitants

Reliability: Table 100

SQ1.5 Compliance with drinking water standards

Reflects the standard of water quality supplied in the calendar year preceding the rating date. It is assessed by comparing water sample quality analyses against applicable standards and is quantified by the percentage of inhabitants served who receive water that meets the conditions established in the "applicable regulations".

Definition: Percentage of inhabitants whose water supply complies with "applicable standards" as a proportion of total inhabitants in the "geographical area to be rated" for drinking water supply in the full calendar year preceding the rating date.

Type: Indicator

Service: Drinking Water

Glossary: Applicable regulations, Geographical area to be rated

Formula: ([CS1-V3]/[CS1-V2])*100 Unit: %

Normalization Function: Variables

[CS1-V2] Population with a household connection in the "geographical area to be rated" for drinking water supply.

Definition: Population with a household connection in the "geographical area to be rated" for drinking water supply (at the end of the calendar year preceding the rating date).

Units: inhabitants

Reliability: Table 100

[CS1-V3] Number of inhabitants for whom "applicable water sample quality standards" have been complied with.

Definition: Number of inhabitants for whom "applicable water sample quality standards" have been complied with throughout the full calendar year preceding the rating date. It is assumed that standards have been complied with in a zone when the controls established in the applicable standards have been carried out and the criteria established have been met in full.

Units: inhabitants

Reliability: Table 9

SQ1.6 Supplied water quality control frequency

Definition: Percentage of days per year on which "samples representative of supplied quality" within the entire "system" are taken and analyzed.

Type: Indicator

Service: Drinking Water

Glossary: System, Representative sample of supplied quality

Formula: ([CS1-V4]/365)*100 Unit: %

Normalization Function: Variables

[CS1-V4] Number of days per year on which "representative samples of supplied quality" are taken and analyzed.

Definition: Number of days per year on which "representative samples of supplied quality" are taken and analyzed throughout the full calendar year preceding the rating date.

Units: days

Reliability: Table 10

SQ2 Distribution of drinking water for use and consumption

The service quality rating linked to drinking water distribution considered in this section is limited to those aspects of the service that depend on proper operation of the intake, transportation, tank storage and distribution "systems". However, it does include issues related to water quality (SQ1), user service (SQ4) and access to service (AS). Therefore, the area of consideration is only the area covered by supply infrastructure to properties or points of use and consumption managed by the utility that is rated within the system.

The quality of the service delivered will depend, among other factors, on the capacity of existing infrastructure to exploit the water resources available and to transport and distribute them after treatment. This capacity is in turn a consequence of appropriate planning, design, implementation and investment policy by authorities with the power and obligation to extend, enlarge and renew supply and distribution infrastructure.

This group of assessment elements considers everything related to continuity of water supply for consumption as regards compliance with required basic water parameters. The time it takes to connect new users to the supply "system" is also considered, understanding the delay between requesting a connection and the connection becoming operational to be a specific form of discontinuity.

Some parameters usually used to estimate service continuity, such as the number of ruptures in pipelines, have been included in the Operating Efficiency area (OE), as it is considered more appropriate to link them to infrastructure management practices even though they could be used to determine discontinuities in supply and service conditions.

Practices

SQ2.1 Assurance of structural capacity for supply and distribution

SQ2.2 Assurance of supply continuity during operation

SQ2.3 Supervision and control of supply continuity

Indicators

SQ2.4 Supply continuity

SQ2.5 Time taken to connect new users to the drinking water service

SQ2.1 Assurance of structural capacity for supply and distribution

Type: Best Practices

Service: Drinking Water

Normalization: Weighted by practices

Glossary: System, Contingency

(Continues…)



Excerpted from "AquaRating"
by .
Copyright © 2015 Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).
Excerpted by permission of IWA Publishing.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements, 1,
About the authors, 3,
Introduction, 7,
Chapter 1 SQ Service Quality, 17,
Chapter 2 PE Investment Planning and Implementation Efficiency, 69,
Chapter 3 OE Operating Efficiency, 97,
Chapter 4 ME Business Management Efficiency, 141,
Chapter 5 FS Financial Sustainability, 177,
Chapter 6 AS Access to Service, 213,
Chapter 7 CG Corporate Governance, 225,
Chapter 8 ES Environmental Sustainability, 237,
Appendix A: Reliability Tables, 263,
Appendix B: Glossary Terms, 333,
Appendix C: AquaRating Weights, 347,

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See All Customer Reviews