This single-volume book contends that reshaping the paradigm of American Indian identity, blood quantum, and racial distinctions can positively impact the future of the Indian community within America and America itself.
• Addresses legal and historical issues about Indian identity and multiple citizenships that have never before been covered in a text
• Sums up the issues, discussion, and proposed solutions to the questions surrounding Indian identity
• Sounds an awakening call to tribal leaders regarding the threat of extermination if they continue to rely on the paradigm of blood quantum instead of citizenship to define Indian identity
• Provides a voice that reaches out to and finds common cause with indigenous brothers and sisters in the world of former British colonies
About the Author
Se-ah-dom Edmo is coordinator of the Indigenous Ways of Knowing program at Lewis & Clark College, director for the Oregon Tribal Histories and Sovereignty Curriculum Design Project, and vice president of the Oregon Indian Education Association. Her tribal affiliations are Shoshone-Bannock, Yakama, and Nez Perce.
Jessie Young is an enrolled citizen of the Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw Indians. Young is an attorney advisor for the Department of Interior, Office of the Regional Solicitor, Portland, OR. The views expressed in the book are her own and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of the Interior or the United States.
Alan Parker is a professor at the Maori Indigenous University located in Whakatane, New Zealand.
Robert J. Miller is a citizen of the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, professor at the Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law, Arizona State University, and the Chief Justice for the Grand Ronde Tribe.
Table of Contents
Series Foreword Bruce E. Johansen vii
Foreword Robert J. Miller xi
Introduction Alan Parker 1
1 Traditional Indian Identity Jessie Young Alan Parker 7
2 Indian Identity and the Role of the Tribal Governments Today Alan Parker 15
3 The Problems of Modern Indian Identity: Intersectionality, the American Dream, the Myth of Scarcity, Disenrollment, and Belonging Se-ah-dom Edmo 25
4 The Rhetoric of Indian Identity Se-ah-dom Edmo 49
5 Mascots and Cultural Appropriation; Effects on Tribal Governments and Identity Development Se-ah-dom Edmo 65
6 Education; Public Schools, Boarding Schools, Indigenous Scholarship, and Ethnic Fraud Se-ah-dom Edmo 77
7 Criminal Law and Indian Identity Jessie Young 95
8 Tribal Citizenship and Indian Identity Jessie Young 113
9 Replace the Paradigm of Tribal Membership with the Paradigm of Tribal Citizenship Alan Parker 131
Conclusion: The Journey toward Asserting an Authentic Identity in the Twenty-First Century for American Indian Citizens and Their Tribal Nations Alan Parker 147
What People are Saying About This
"Who are we? The fact that, across indigenous contexts, we constantly have to ask and answer this question speaks to the terrible history of colonialism. This book examines the question of Indian identity through contemporary issues such as mascots, schooling, enrollment, and ethnic fraud. It is relevant, provocative, and constructive. It adds new and important insights on the questions of Indian identity from a group well grounded Indigenous activist scholars."
"This book is a powerful contribution to our understanding of the ethnic identity of America's First People, the American Indians. The authors share their own understanding of who they are as members of Tribal Nations in the 21st century. Even among the educated elite, very few know that over 500 Tribal Nations are recognized by the U.S. government as sovereign indigenous nations. They exist under 370 treaties. As tribal citizens, the authors examine the threat of extermination posed by the use of blood quantum as a criteria to deteremine who is Indian. This book is required reading for the reading public, and especially American Indian readers."