Pub. Date:
McGraw-Hill Companies, The
AIDS Update 2008 / Edition 17

AIDS Update 2008 / Edition 17

by Gerald J. Stine


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AIDS Update 2008 presents a balanced review of current research and information on HIV infection, HIV disease, and AIDS. AIDS Update 2008 places this discussion within a biological, medical, social, economic and legal framework, helping readers to more fully understand this modern-day pandemic.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780073375281
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Publication date: 01/11/2008
Series: Textbook Series
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 528
Product dimensions: 7.50(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

About the Author     iii
A Quarter Century of AIDS and Counting     ix
AIDS UPDATE 2008     xiv
Preface     xvi
Introduction: Histories of Global Pandemics, AIDS, Its Place in History, Overview of HIV/AIDS, International AIDS Conferences and Means of Remembering-the AIDS Quilt, Candlelight Memorial, and World AIDS Day     1
AIDS: Defining the Disease and Finding Its Cause     17
The New Millennium     17
AIDS: A Disease or a Syndrome?     18
First Reaction to AIDS: Denial     18
What Causes AIDS?     19
How Does HIV Cause AIDS?     20
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Reports     22
Discovery of the AIDS Virus     23
Defining the Illness: AIDS Surveillance     25
Summary     27
Review Questions     27
What Causes AIDS: Origin of the AIDS Virus     28
The Cause of AIDS: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)     28
Evidence that HIV Causes AIDS     33
Origin of HIV: The AIDS Virus     35
Summary on the Origin of HIV     41
Summary     42
Review Questions     42
Biological Characteristics of the AIDS Virus     44
VirusesNeed a Host Cell in Order to Reproduce     44
Viruses Are Parasites     44
Viruses Specific to Cell Type     45
Retroviruses     45
Description of HIV; How It Attaches to a Host Cell and Buds Out of the Cell     45
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): Its Life Cycle     48
The HIV Life Cycle     48
How HIV Escapes the Infected Cell     52
Basic Genetic Structure of Retroviral Genomes     52
Genetic Revolution     57
Formation of Genetic Recombination in HIV     58
Distinct Genotypes (Subtypes/Clades) of HIV-1 Worldwide Based on ENV and GAG Proteins     59
Summary     62
Review Questions     62
Anti-HIV Therapy     64
Anti-HIV Therapy     65
Eradication Update-2007     65
Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Drugs with FDA-Approval     66
The HIV Medicine Chest: ART Drugs Receiving FDA Approval     66
FDA-Approved Nucleoside/Non-Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors and Protease Inhibitors     69
Use of Non-Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors     71
FDA-Approved Protease Inhibitors     72
Protease Inhibitors     73
Entry Inhibitors and Problems      75
Development and Selection of HIV Drug-Resistant Mutants     75
Development of HIV Drug Resistance to Protease Inhibitors     76
How Combination Drug Therapy Can Reduce the Chance of HIV Drug Resistance     79
HIV Treatment Regimen Failure     82
Viral Load: Its Relationship to HIV Disease and AIDS     84
Medical Complications Associated with Anti-HIV Drug Therapies (ART)     85
The Smart Trial was Cancelled on January 11, 2006     95
Disclaimer     98
Summary     98
Some AIDS Therapy Information Hotlines     99
Review Questions     99
The Immunology of HIV Disease/AIDS     101
The Immune System     101
Human Lymphocytes: T Cells and B Cells     103
Antibodies and HIV Disease     110
Immune System Dysfunction     112
Original Antigenic Sin     113
The Search for Additional Receptors (Coreceptors) to CD4: FUSIN or CXCKR-4 (R-4)     115
CCKR-5 (R-5) Receptor     115
Emergence of HIV Strains that Vary in Their Lethal Abilities     115
In Search of Genetic Resistance to HIV Infection     116
T4 Cell Depletion and Immune Suppression     118
Impact of T4 Cell Depletion     120
Role of Monocytes and Macrophages in HIV Infection     120
Where Do T4 or CD4+ Cells Become HIV Infected?     121
Summary     124
Review Questions     124
Opportunistic Infections and Cancers Associated with HIV Disease/AIDS     126
What Is an Opportunistic Disease?     126
The Prevalence of Opportunistic Diseases     127
Prophylaxis Against Opportunistic Infections     127
Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected People     127
TB and HIV     139
Cancer or Malignancy in AIDS Patients     140
Disclaimer     145
Summary     145
Review Questions     145
A Profile of Biological Indicators for HIV Disease and Progression to AIDS     146
HIV Disease Defined     146
Stages of HIV Disease (Without Drug Therapy)     150
HIV Disease Without Symptoms, with Symptoms, and AIDS     157
Aspects of HIV Infection     157
Production of HIV-Specific Antibodies     157
Prognostic Biological Markers Related to AIDS Progression     163
HIV Infection of the Central Nervous System (CNS)     167
Neuropathies in HIV Disease/AIDS Patients      171
Pediatric Clinical Signs and Symptoms     171
Summary     171
Review Questions     172
Epidemiology and Transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus     173
We Must Stop HIV Transmission Now!     175
Epidemiology of HIV Infection     175
Transmission of Two Strains of HIV (HIV-1/HIV-2)     176
Is HIV Transmitted by Insects?     176
HIV Transmission     177
HIV Transmissioin in Family/Household Settings     178
Noncasual Transmission     179
Gay Men Putting Themselves at High Risk for HIV Infection     188
Problem     194
Injection-Drug Users and HIV Transmission     205
United States: Heterosexual Injection-Drug Use (IDU)     205
Cesarean Section     217
Conclusion     219
National AIDS Resources     219
Summary     219
Review Questions     220
Preventing the Transmission of HIV     222
The AIDS Generation: "I Knew Everything About It, and I Still Got It!"     223
Prevention, Not Treatment, Is the Least Expensive and Most Effective Way to Stop the Spread of HIV/AIDS     223
Global Prevention     224
Antiretroviral Drugs Having an Impact on Prevention, but We Can't Treat Our Way Out of This Pandemic     224
Advancing HIV Prevention: New Strategies for a Changing Epidemic     227
Preventing the Transmission of HIV     228
Sexual Risk Taking Depends on Sexual Activity     232
New Rules to an Old Game: Promoting Safer Sex     235
The Male Condom     239
The Female Condom or Femidom (Vaginal Pouch)     246
An Alternative to Condoms: Vaginal Microbicides     248
Injection-Drug Use and HIV Transmission: The Twin Epidemics     249
HIV Prevention for Injection-Drug Users     251
Prevention of Blood and Blood Product HIV Transmission     253
Infection Control Procedures     254
Sexual Partner Notification: Disclosure     259
The U.S. Federal Government Has Now Adopted Partner Notification as Its Cornerstone in Its Effort to Help Control the Spread of HIV     259
Vaccine Development and Its Role in Prevention     263
Types of Experimental HIV Vaccines     268
DNA Vaccine     268
Coverage, or Who Gets the Vaccine     269
Impact Summary of an HIV Vaccine     269
Problems in the Search for HIV Vaccine     271
Summary     272
Review Questions      274
Prevalence of HIV Infections, AIDS Cases, and Deaths Among Select Groups in the United States and in Other Countries     275
A Word About HIV/AIDS Data     276
The Millennium: Year 2008     280
Formula for Estimating HIV Infections     282
Behavioral Risk Groups and Statistical Evaluation     284
Estimates of HIV Infection and Future AIDS Cases     294
Newly Infected     296
Shape of the HIV Pandemic: United States     296
Shape of AIDS Pandemic: United States     297
Estimates of Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost Due to AIDS in the United States     300
Prevalence and Impact of HIV/AIDS     302
Connected But Separate     302
Workforce - South Africa: Some Examples     306
Education: Teachers and Students - South Africa and Some Countries in Southern Africa     307
Other HIV/AIDS Time Bombs: Asia, India, China, and Russia     308
Summary     312
Review Questions     313
Prevalence of HIV Infection and AIDS Cases Among Women and Children     314
AIDS is Defining the Lives of Millions of Women     315
Every Day a Tragedy     315
Triple Jeopardy     315
Annual International Women's Day-March 8      315
Women: AIDS and HIV Infections Worldwide     316
Women: HIV-Positive and AIDS Cases-United States     317
Childbearing Women     332
Internet     333
Pediatric HIV-Positive and AIDS Cases-United States     333
Orphaned Children Due to HIV Infection and AIDS     334
The Phenomenon of AIDS Orphans     335
Summary     341
Review Questions     342
Prevalence of HIV Infection and AIDS Among Young Adults, Ages 13 to 24     343
Global HIV Infections in Young Adults     343
Addressing the AIDS Pandemic Among Young Adults     344
How Large Is the Young Adult Population in the United States?     345
HIV/AIDS Won't Affect Us!     346
Estimate of HIV-Infected and AIDS Cases Among Young Adults in the United States     347
Summary     355
Internet     355
Other Useful Sources     355
Review Questions     355
Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus     356
Determining the Presence of Antibody Produced When HIV Is Present     357
Requests for HIV Testing     357
Reasons for HIV Testing     357
Laboratory Methods for Detecting HIV      359
ELISA HIV Antibody Test     360
Western Blot Assay     366
New ELISA Antibody Testing and Viral Load Procedures Reveal Early Versus Late HIV Infection     369
Rapid HIV Testing     371
FDA Approves Two Home HIV Antibody Test Kits     375
Some Screening and Confirmatory Tests for HIV     376
Deciding Who and When to Get an HIV Test     379
Why Is HIV Test Information Necessary?     380
Immigration into the United States     381
Testing, Competency, and Informed Consent     384
Summary     390
Review Questions     391
AIDS and Society: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior     392
HIV/AIDS is a Story in Our Lifetime     392
The New Millennium and HIV/AIDS     393
HIV/AIDS Is an Unusual Social Disease     395
AIDS Is Here to Stay     395
AIDS     395
Blame Someone, Deja Vu     396
Fear: Panic and Hysteria Over the Spread of HIV/AIDS in the United States     397
Whom Is the General Public to Believe?     398
AIDS Education and Behavior     402
The Character of Society     410
Dealing with Discrimination: The Americans with Disabilities Act      414
Federal and Private Sector Financing: Creation of an AIDS Industry     417
U.S. Government Believes HIV/AIDS Is a Threat to National Security     420
Global HIV/AIDS Funding for Underdeveloped Nations     421
Forms of U.S. Monetary Assistance for HIV/AIDS     427
Summary     430
Review Questions     431
Answers to Review Questions     433
Glossary     439
References     447
Index     468

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