The Federal Aviation Administration is responsible for insuring the safe, efficient, and secure use of the Nation's airspace, by military as well as civil aviation, for promoting safety in air commerce, for encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology, and for supporting the requirements of national defense. The activities required to carry out these responsibilities include: safety regulations; airspace management and the establishment, operation, and maintenance of a civil−military common system of air traffic control (ATC) and navigation facilities; research and development in support of the fostering of a national system of airports, promulgation of standards and specifications for civil airports, and administration of Federal grants−in−aid for developing public airports; various joint and cooperative activities with the Department of Defense; and technical assistance (under State Department auspices) to other countries. This manual is designed to provide the aviation community with basic flight information and ATC procedures for use in the National Airspace System (NAS) of the United States. An international version called the Aeronautical Information Publication contains parallel information, as well as specific information on the international airports for use by the international community. This manual contains the fundamentals required in order to fly in the United States NAS. It also contains items of interest to pilots concerning health and medical facts, factors affecting flight safety, a pilot/controller glossary of terms used in the ATC System, and information on safety, accident, and hazard reporting.