The increasing deployment of bioenergy frequently raises issues regarding the use of land and raw materials, infrastructure and logistics. In light of these sometimes conflicting interests Advances in Bioenergy provides an objective and wide-ranging overview of the technology, economics and policy of bioenergy.
Offering an authoritative multidisciplinary summary of the opportunities and challenges associated with bioenergy utilization, with international researchers give up-to-date and detailed information on key issues for biomass production and conversion to energy.
*Discusses different bioenergy uses such as transportation fuels, electricity and heat production.
*Assesses emerging fields such as bio-based chemicals and bio-refineries.
*Debates conditions for the mobilization of sustainable bioenergy supply chains and outlines governance systems to support this mobilization.
* Dedicated chapters to sustainability governance and emerging tools such as certification systems and standards supporting growth of a sustainable bioenergy industry.
*Considers the political, environmental, social and cultural context related to the demand for energy resources, the impact of this demand on the world around us, and the choices and behaviours of consumers.
This book will be a vital reference to engineers, researchers and students that need an accessible overview of the bioenergy area. It will also be of high value for politicians, policymakers and industry leaders that need to stay up to date with the state-of-the-art science and technology in this area.
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About the Author
Peter D. Lund is Professor in Advanced Energy Systems at Aalto University (Helsinki) where he chairs the multidisciplinary Energy Science Initiative. He is also a Visiting Professor in Wuhan, China. His primary interest is in sustainable energy systems, innovations, and policies.
Dr. Lund is active in senior roles with EU initiatives in energy: he chaired the Advisory Group Energy of E.C. 2002-06, he chairs the Energy Steering Panel of European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC) and is a steering committee member of Euro-CASE energy platform. He has served in advisory role in many energy programmes world wide, including IEA, EIT, Baltic and Russia cooperation. Dr. Lund is Editor-in-Chief for Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment and European Editor for International Journal of Energy Research (Wiley). Peter Lund has given numerous invited talks and written over 500 research papers on energy.
John Byrne is Director of the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy (CEEP) and Distinguished Professor of Energy and Climate Policy at the University of Delaware. He has contributed to Working Group III of the United Nations-sponsored Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) since 1992 and shares the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with the Panel’s authors and review editors. He holds several senior academic, advisory and policy advisor positions, among others in South Korea, China, India and the USA. His work in the US includes service as an advisor to the National Council for Science and the Environment (US) and the Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice, coordinated by the US EPA. Dr Byrne created the first undergraduate and graduate degrees in the United States in the combined area of energy and environmental policy and a recent external review conducted by a committee of internationally respected scholars rated the CEEP graduate program among the three best in the field. He has published 17 books and over 150 research articles.
Göran Berndes is Associate Professor in Energy and Environment at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. He is also Associate of the International Institute for Sustainability Analysis and Strategy (IINAS) and Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI). His research integrates land use and energy systems at scales ranging from local case studies to the global context, addressing technology, ecology as well as governance issues. Dr. Berndes has contributed as Expert Reviewer and Author to Working Group III of the IPCC and has served as international Task leader in IEA Bioenergy since 2007. He was awarded the Nordic Council of Ministers' Bioenergy prize in 2010. He currently chairs the Activity Group on Bioenergy and Water within the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) and is manager for the profile area Energy in a Circular Economy within Chalmers Energy Area of Advance. Dr. Berndes is Associate Editor for Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment and Consultant Editor for Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining (Wiley).
Iacovos A. Vasalos was a Professor at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering from 1979 to 2005. He is currently Emeritus Researcher at the Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH). He started his career in the Amoco Research Center in Naperville, Illinois, where he worked for 10 years from 1969 to 1979, as a research engineer, project manager, process specialist in catalytic cracking, research supervisor, and as a consultant until 1999. He is the author or coauthor of 132 scientific publications and 43 international patents many of which have been successfully applied in refineries. He was instrumental in founding and organizing CPERI and CERTH. He was also actively involved in a series of EU-funded projects in areas such as clean fossil fuels, syngas production, biofuels, environmental catalysis with emphasis on catalytic reaction engineering and modelling coupled with overall process simulation.
Table of Contents
About the Editors ix
PART I: PROMISING INNOVATION IN BIOMASS CONVERSION
1 Metabolic Engineering: Enabling Technology for Biofuels Production 3
Mitchell Tai and Gregory N. Stephanopoulos
2 Hydrolysis and Fermentation for Cellulosic Ethanol Production 11
Charilaos Xiros, Evangelos Topakas and Paul Christakopoulos
3 Lipid-Based Liquid Biofuels from Autotrophic Microalgae: Energetic and Environmental Performance 33
4 Catalytic Pyrolysis of Biomass for Transportation Fuels 45
Angelos A. Lappas, Kostas G. Kalogiannis, Eleni F. Iliopoulou, Kostas S. Triantafyllidis and Stylianos D. Stefanidis
5 Integrated Biomass Hydropyrolysis and Hydrotreating: A Brief Review 57
Martin Linck, Larry Felix, Terry Marker and Michael Roberts
6 Transportation Fuels from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing 65
Douglas C. Elliott
7 Biomass Gasification for Synthesis Gas Production and Applications of the Syngas 73
Reinhard Rauch, Jitka Hrbek and Hermann Hofbauer
8 Hydrogen Generation from Biomass Materials: Challenges and Opportunities 93
Pravakar Mohanty, Kamal K. Pant and Ritesh Mittal
9 Production of Renewable Hydrogen by Reformation of Biofuels 109
Paraskevi Panagiotopoulou, Christina Papadopoulou, Haris Matralis and Xenophon Verykios
10 Fischer–Tropsch Conversion of Biomass-Derived Synthetic Gas to Liquid Fuels 131
Andreas Helland Lillebø, Anders Holmen, Bjørn Christian Enger and Edd Anders Blekkan
11 Critical Factors for High Temperature Processing of Biomass from Agriculture and Energy Crops to Biofuels and Bioenergy 149
Stelios Arvelakis and Emmanuel G. Koukios
12 Second-Generation Biofuels:Why They are Taking so Long 163
Daniel J. M. Hayes
13 Separation Technologies for Current and Future Biorefineries—Status and Potential of Membrane-Based Separation 193
Lan Ying Jiang and Jia Ming Zhu
14 Catalysis at Room Temperature: Perspectives for Future Green Chemical Processes 209
Frank Leung-Yuk Lam, Michael C. L. Li, Rock S. L. Chau, Rick A. D. Arancon, Xijun Hu and Rafael Luque
15 Co-Firing of Biomass with Coal in Thermal Power Plants: Technology Schemes, Impacts, and Future Perspectives 233
Emmanouil Karampinis, Panagiotis Grammelis, Michalis Agraniotis, Ioannis Violidakis and Emmanuel Kakaras
PART II: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS FOR BIOMASS SUPPLY
16 Bioenergy and Land Use Change—State of the Art 251
G¨oran Berndes, Serina Ahlgren, P??al B¨orjesson, and Annette L. Cowie
17 Forest Energy Procurement: State of the Art in Finland and Sweden 273
Johanna Routa, Antti Asikainen, Rolf Bj¨orheden, Juha Laitila and Dominik R¨oser
18 Options for Increasing Biomass Output from Long-Rotation Forestry 285
Gustaf Egnell and Rolf Bj¨orheden
19 Recovery Rate of Harvest Residues for Bioenergy in Boreal and Temperate Forests: A Review 293
Evelyne Thiffault, Ariane B´echard, David Par´e and Darren Allen
20 Forest Bioenergy Feedstock Harvesting Effects on Water Supply 317
Daniel G. Neary and Karen A. Koestner
21 Best Management Practices for Forest Bioenergy Programs 333
Daniel G. Neary
22 Principles of Nutrient Management for Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Production 351
Donald Mead and Charles Smith
23 Crop Coefficients of Jatropha (Jatropha Curcas) and Pongamia (Pongamia Pinnata) UsingWater Balance Approach 363
Kaushal K. Garg, Suhas P. Wani and A. V. R. Kesava Rao
24 Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol: Developments so far and Challenges for the Future 373
Arnaldo Walter, Marcelo Valadares Galdos, Fabio Vale Scarpare, Manoel Regis Lima Verde Leal, Joaquim Eugˆenio Abel Seabra, Marcelo Pereira da Cunha, Michelle Cristina Araujo Picoli and Camila Ortolan Fernandes de Oliveira
25 The Climate Benefit of Swedish Ethanol: Present and Prospective Performance 395
P??al B¨orjesson, Serina Ahlgren and G¨oran Berndes
26 Performance of Small-Scale Straw-to-Heat Supply Chains in Norway 411
Helmer Belbo and Bruce Talbot
27 Transport Sector in Ireland: Can 2020 National Policy Targets Drive Indigenous Biofuel Production to Success? 419
Egle Gusciute, Ger Devlin, Fionnuala Murphy and Kevin McDonnell
28 Prospects for Domestic Biofuels for Transport in Sweden 2030 Based on Current Production and Future Plans 431
Maria Grahn and Julia Hansson
29 Land and the Food–Fuel Competition: Insights from Modeling 447
Sylvia Prieler, G¨unther Fischer and Harrij van Velthuizen
30 The Impact of Biofuel Demand on Agricultural Commodity Prices: A Systematic Review 465
U. Martin Persson
31 How do Sustainability Standards Consider Biodiversity? 483
Oskar Englund and G¨oran Berndes
32 A Global Survey of Stakeholder Views and Experiences for Systems Needed to Effectively and Efficiently Govern Sustainability of Bioenergy 507
Inge Stupak, Jamie Joudrey, C. Tattersall Smith, Luc Pelkmans, Helena Chum, Annette Cowie, Oskar Englund, Chun Sheng Goh and Martin Junginger